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leadership

leadership

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Published by: Md.Golam Robbany on Apr 23, 2011
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08/16/2013

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Leadership1
Leadership
Leadership
has been described as the
process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and supportof others in the accomplishment of a common task 
. Definitions more inclusive of followers have also emerged. AlanKeith of Genentech states that, "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to makingsomething extraordinary happen." According to Ken "SKC" Ogbonnia, "effective leadership is the ability tosuccessfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment for theattainment of organizational or societal goals."The following sections discuss several important aspects of leadership including a description of what leadership isand a description of several popular theories and styles of leadership. This article also discusses topics such as therole of emotions and vision, as well as leadership effectiveness and performance, leadership in different contexts,how it may differ from related concepts (i.e., management), and some critiques of leadership as generally conceived.
Theories
Leadership is "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal." The leader may or may not have any formalauthority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits,
[1]
situational interaction, function,behavior, power, vision and values,
[2]
charisma, and intelligence among others. Arieu, A. defines a leader as "aperson capable of inspiring and associate others with a dream." It is therefore important that organizations have avisionary mission, since it is a powerful way to strengthen the leadership of its directors.
Early history
The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has been ongoing for centuries. History's greatest philosophicalwritings from Plato's
 Republic
to Plutarch's
 Lives
have explored the question of "What qualities distinguish anindividual as a leader?" Underlying this search was the early recognition of the importance of leadership and theassumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain individuals possess. This idea that leadership isbased on individual attributes is known as the "trait theory of leadership."This view of leadership, the trait theory, was explored at length in a number of works in the previous century. Mostnotable are the writings of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research. In
 Heroes and Hero Worship
(1841), Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who roseto power. In Galton's (1869)
 Hereditary Genius
, he examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men.After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when moving from first degree to second degreerelatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited. In other words, leaders were born, not developed. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of the leader.For decades, this trait-based perspective dominated empirical and theoretical work in leadership.
[3]
Using earlyresearch techniques, researchers conducted over a hundred studies proposing a number of characteristics thatdistinguished leaders from nonleaders: intelligence, dominance, adaptability, persistence, integrity, socioeconomicstatus, and self-confidence just to name a few.
[4]
Rise of alternative theories
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., Bird, 1940;
[5]
Stogdill, 1948;
[6]
Mann, 1959
[7]
) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forcesbehind leadership. In reviewing the extant literature, Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were commonacross a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that persons who are leaders in one situation may notnecessarily be leaders in other situations. Subsequently, leadership was no longer characterized as an enduringindividual trait, as situational approaches (see alternative leadership theories below) posited that individuals can beeffective in certain situations, but not others. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research
 
Leadership2for the next few decades.
Reemergence of trait theory
New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish thetrait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. For example, improvements in researchers' use of theround robin research design methodology allowed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leadersacross a variety of situations and tasks.
[8]
Additionally, during the 1980s statistical advances allowed researchers toconduct meta-analyses, in which they could quantitatively analyze and summarize the findings from a wide array of studies. This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive and parsimonious picture of previousleadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past. Equipped with new methods, leadershipresearchers revealed the following:Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks
[8]
Significant relationships exist between leadership and such individual traits as:intelligence
[9]
adjustment
[9]
extraversion
[9]
conscientiousness
[10]
 
[11]
 
[12]
openness to experience
[11]
 
[13]
general self-efficacy
[14]
 
[15]
While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by acorresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks.
[3]
Specifically, Zaccaro (2007)
[3]
noted that trait theories still:1.Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as Big Five personality traits, to the neglect of cognitiveabilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills2.Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes3.Do not distinguish between those leader attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that areshaped by, and bound to, situational influences4.Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effectiveleadership
Attribute pattern approach
Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a differentperspective of leader individual differences - the leader attribute pattern approach.
[16]
 
[17]
 
[18]
 
[19]
 
[20]
In contrast tothe traditional approach, the leader attribute pattern approach is based on theorists' arguments that the influence of individual characteristics on outcomes is best understood by considering the person as an integrated totality ratherthan a summation of individual variables.
[19]
 
[21]
In other words, the leader attribute pattern approach argues thatintegrated constellations or combinations of individual differences may explain substantial variance in both leaderemergence and leader effectiveness beyond that explained by single attributes, or by additive combinations of multiple attributes.
Behavioral and style theories
In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors,evaluating the behavior of 'successful' leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy and identifying broad leadershipstyles.
[22]
David McClelland, for example, Leadership takes a strong personality with a well developed positive ego.Not so much as a pattern of motives, but a set of traits is crucial. To lead; self-confidence and a high self-esteem isuseful, perhaps even essential.
[23]
[Kevin Mick]
 
Leadership3
A graphical representation of the managerial gridmodel
Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in 1939the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles andperformance. The researchers evaluated the performance of groupsof eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. Ineach, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of groupdecision making, praise and criticism (feedback), and themanagement of the group tasks (project management) according tothree styles: (1) authoritarian, (2) democratic and (3)laissez-faire.
[24]
 
 Authoritarian climates
were characterized byleaders who make decisions alone, demand strict compliance to hisorders, and dictate each step taken; future steps were uncertain to alarge degree. The leader is not necessarily hostile but is aloof fromparticipation in work and commonly offers personal praise andcriticism for the work done.
 Democratic climates
werecharacterized by collective decision processes, assisted by theleader. Before accomplishing tasks, perspectives are gained from group discussion and technical advice from aleader. Members are given choices and collectively decide the division of labor. Praise and criticism in such anenvironment are objective, fact minded and given by a group member without necessarily having participatedextensively in the actual work.
 Laissez faire climates
gave freedom to the group for policy determination without anyparticipation from the leader. The leader remains uninvolved in work decisions unless asked, does not participate inthe division of labor, and very infrequently gives praise.
[24]
The results seemed to confirm that the democraticclimate was preferred.
[25]
The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. The model was developed by Robert Blake and JaneMouton in 1964 and suggests five different leadership styles, based on the leaders' concern for people and theirconcern for goal achievement.
[26]
B.F. Skinner is the father of Behavior Modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positivereinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future.
[27]
The following is an example of how positive reinforcement can be used in a businesssetting. Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee. This employee does not show up to work ontime every day. The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day theemployee actually shows up to work on time. As a result, the employee comes to work on time more often becausethe employee likes to be praised. In this example, praise (i.e. stimulus) is a positive reinforcer for this employeebecause the employee arrives (i.e. behavior) to work on time more frequently after being praised for showing up towork on time.The use of positive reinforcement is a successful and growing technique used by leaders to motivate and attaindesired behaviors from subordinates. Organizations such as Frito-Lay, 3M, Goodrich, Michigan Bell, and Emery AirFreight have all used reinforcement to increase productivity.
[28]
Empirical research covering the last 20 yearssuggests that reinforcement theory has a 17 percent increase in performance. Additionally, many reinforcementtechniques such as the use of praise are inexpensive, providing higher performance for lower costs.

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