Handout »Design Thinking« | Course: Management Theories- 2 -Figure 1: A typical »Design Thinking« Process (Plattner et al., 2009)
The maybe most typical characteristic of all design processes is its non-linear and iterative character. In thefollowing I'll give just a very brief description of the process without details. Therefore it
does not lay claimto completeness.
The first step serves to carve out the problem, make sure that everybody (especially in a diverse team)understood it »right« and then goes further in trying to formulate a useful and »right« research question,that enables the team to select the appropriate methods for the next step. This step already is importantbecause usually the first differences between the team members emerge (different mindsets etc.), which canbe a good starting point for later insight generation, problem reframing and the therewith connectedlearning processes (Beckman & Barry, 2007).Further on in this step measurements for success should be developed (if possible) and priorities regardingthe project goals must be set. In addition the team should become aware of available project-time.
To develop a truly deep understanding of the formulated problem good designers embrace the use of methods that overcome the limitations of traditional market research (e.g. contextual inquiry focuses on the‚what’, ethnographical methods focus on the ‚why’
richer and »valid« data), by getting into allstakeholders natural life world. This often yields insights that focus groups, interviews and the like cannot.Insights that uncover meaning, culture, context and practices. Mostly these methods are »borrowed« fromethnography, anthropology and sociology and then adapted to the particular problem. Very often the initialproblem formulation is reframed in several iterations during this process.
OBSERVE – RESULTS
Rapid Ethnography; Visual anthropology; Video ethnography; Non-participant & direct observation; Participantobservation; Formal ethnographic interviews; Intercepts; Informant diaries; Virtual ethnography (netnography);Story listening and many more …