have errors relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission, usually expressed as ten to a negative power. For example, a transmission might have a BER of 10 to the minus 6, meaning that, out of 1,000,000 bits transmitted, one bit was in error. The BER is an indication of how often a packet or other data unit has to be retransmitted because of an error. Too high a BER may indicate that a slower data rate would actually improve overall transmission time for a given amount of transmitted data since the BER might be reduced, lowering the number of packets that had to be resent.
In telecommunication, an error ratio is the ratio of the number of bits, elements, characters, or blocks incorrectly received to the total number of bits, elements, characters, or blocks sent during a specified time interval. The error ratio is usually expressed in scientific notation; for example, 2.5 erroneous bits out of 100,000 bits transmitted would be 2.5 out of 105 or 2.5 \u00d7 10-5.
Examples of bit error ratio are (a) transmission BER,i.e., the number of erroneous bits received divided by the total number of bits transmitted; and (b) information BER,i.e., the number of erroneous decoded (corrected) bits divided by the total number of decoded (corrected) bits.
In radio communication systems, Equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) or, alternatively, Effective isotropic radiated power is the amount of power that would have to be emitted by an isotropic antenna (that evenly distributes power in all directions and is a theoretical construct) to produce the peak power density observed in the direction of maximum antenna gain. EIRP can take into account the losses in transmission line and connectors and includes the gain of the antenna. The EIRP is often stated in terms of decibels over a reference power level, that would be the power emitted by an isotropic radiator with an equivalent signal strength. The EIRP allows making comparisons between different emitters regardless of type, size or form. From the EIRP, and with knowledge of a real antenna's gain, it is possible to calculate real power and field strength values.
+ (Antenna Gain(dBi))
where antenna gain is expressed relative to a (theoretical) isotropic reference antenna.
This example uses dBm, although it is also common to see dBW.
In built-up areas, regulations may restrict the EIRP of a transmitter to prevent exposure of personnel to high power electromagnetic fields however EIRP is normally restricted to minimise interference to services on similar frequencies
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?