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ncert ch2 chemistry class 11

ncert ch2 chemistry class 11

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Published by Karan Mangla

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Published by: Karan Mangla on Apr 24, 2011
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26C:\Chemistry XI\Unit-2\Unit-2(2)-Lay-2.pmd 12.1.6 (Final)14.1.6,16.1.6, 17.1.6, 24.1.6
The rich diversity of chemical behaviour of different elements can be traced to the differences in the internal structure of atoms of these elements.
 After studying this unit you will beable to
know about the discovery of electron, proton and neutron andtheir characteristics;
describe Thomson, Rutherfordand Bohr atomic models;
understand the important features of the quantummechanical model of atom;
understand nature of electromagnetic radiation andPlanck’s quantum theory;
explain the photoelectric effect and describe features of atomicspectra;
state the de Broglie relation andHeisenberg uncertainty principle;
define an atomic orbital in termsof quantum numbers;
state aufbau principle, Pauliexclusion principle and Hund’srule of maximum multiplicity;
 write the electronic configurationsof atoms.
 The existence of atoms has been proposed since the timeof early Indian and Greek philosophers (400 B.C.) who were of the view that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter. According to them, the continuedsubdivisions of matter would ultimately yield atoms which would not be further divisible. The word ‘atom’ has beenderived from the Greek word ‘
’ which means ‘uncut-able’ or ‘non-divisible’. These earlier ideas were merespeculations and there was no way to test themexperimentally. These ideas remained dormant for a very long time and were revived again by scientists in thenineteenth century. The atomic theory of matter was first proposed on a firm scientific basis by John Dalton, a British schoolteacher in 1808. His theory, called
Dalton’s atomictheory
, regarded the atom as the ultimate particle of matter (Unit 1).In this unit we start with the experimentalobservations made by scientists towards the end of nineteenth and beginning of twentieth century. Theseestablished that atoms can be further divided into sub-atomic particles, i.e., electrons, protons and neutrons— a concept very different from that of Dalton. The major problems before the scientists at that time were:
to account for the stability of atom after the discovery of sub-atomic particles,
to compare the behaviour of one element from other in terms of both physical and chemical properties,
C:\Chemistry XI\Unit-2\Unit-2(2)-Lay-2.pmd 12.1.6 (Final), 14.1.6, 16.1.6 , 17.1.6, 24.1.6
to explain the formation of different kindsof molecules by the combination of different atoms and,
to understand the origin and nature of thecharacteristics of electromagneticradiation absorbed or emitted by atoms.
Dalton’s atomic theory was able to explainthe law of conservation of mass, law of constant composition and law of multipleproportion very successfully. However, it failedto explain the results of many experiments,for example, it was known that substanceslike glass or ebonite when rubbed with silk or fur generate electricity. Many different kindsof sub-atomic particles were discovered in thetwentieth century. However, in this section we will talk about only two particles, namely electron and proton.
2.1.1 Discovery of Electron
In 1830, Michael Faraday showed that if electricity is passed through a solution of anelectrolyte, chemical reactions occurred at theelectrodes, which resulted in the liberationand deposition of matter at the electrodes. Heformulated certain laws which you will study in class XII. These results suggested theparticulate nature of electricity. An insight into the structure of atom wasobtained from the experiments on electricaldischarge through gases. Before we discussthese results we need to keep in mind a basicrule regarding the behaviour of chargedparticles : “Like charges repel each other andunlike charges attract each other”.In mid 1850s many scientists mainly Faraday began to study electrical dischargein partially evacuated tubes, known as
cathode ray discharge tubes
. It is depictedin Fig. 2.1. A cathode ray tube is made of glasscontaining two thin pieces of metal, calledelectrodes, sealed in it. The electricaldischarge through the gases could beobserved only at very low pressures and at  very high voltages. The pressure of different gases could be adjusted by evacuation. Whensufficiently high voltage is applied across theelectrodes, current starts flowing through a stream of particles moving in the tube fromthe negative electrode (cathode) to the positiveelectrode (anode). These were called
cathoderays or cathode ray particles
. The flow of current from cathode to anode was further checked by making a hole in the anode andcoating the tube behind anode withphosphorescent material zinc sulphide. Whenthese rays, after passing through anode, strikethe zinc sulphide coating, a bright spot onthe coating is developed(same thing happensin a television set) [Fig. 2.1(b)].
Fig. 2.1(a) 
 A cathode ray discharge tube 
Fig. 2.1(b) 
 A cathode ray discharge tube with  perforated anode 
 The results of these experiments aresummarised below.(i)The cathode rays start from cathode andmove towards the anode.(ii)These rays themselves are not visible butheir behaviour can be observed with thehelp of certain kind of materials(fluorescent or phosphorescent) whichglow when hit by them. Televisionpicture tubes are cathode ray tubes andtelevision pictures result due tofluorescence on the television screencoated with certain fluorescent or phosphorescent materials.
28C:\Chemistry XI\Unit-2\Unit-2(2)-Lay-2.pmd 12.1.6 (Final)14.1.6,16.1.6, 17.1.6, 24.1.6
(iii)In the absence of electrical or magneticfield, these rays travel in straight lines(Fig. 2.2).(iv)In the presence of electrical or magneticfield, the behaviour of cathode rays aresimilar to that expected from negatively charged particles, suggesting that thecathode rays consist of negatively charged particles, called
(v)The characteristics of cathode rays(electrons) do not depend upon thematerial of electrodes and the nature of the gas present in the cathode ray tube.
Thus, we can conclude that electrons are basic constituent of all the atoms.
2.1.2Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron
In 1897, British physicist J.J. Thomsonmeasured the ratio of electrical charge (
) tothe mass of electron (
) by using cathoderay tube and applying electrical and magneticfield perpendicular to each other as well as tothe path of electrons (Fig. 2.2). Thomsonargued that the amount of deviation of theparticles from their path in the presence of electrical or magnetic field depends upon:(i)the magnitude of the negative charge onthe particle, greater the magnitude of thecharge on the particle, greater is theinteraction with the electric or magneticfield and thus greater is the deflection.
Fig. 2.2
The apparatus to determine the charge to the mass ratio of electron 
(ii)the mass of the particle — lighter theparticle, greater the deflection.(iii)the strength of the electrical or magneticfield — the deflection of electrons fromits original path increases with theincrease in the voltage across theelectrodes, or the strength of themagnetic field. When only electric field is applied, theelectrons deviate from their path and hit thecathode ray tube at point A. Similarly whenonly magnetic field is applied, electron strikesthe cathode ray tube at point C. By carefully  balancing the electrical and magnetic fieldstrength, it is possible to bring back theelectron to the path followed as in the absenceof electric or magnetic field and they hit thescreen at point B. By carrying out accuratemeasurements on the amount of deflectionsobserved by the electrons on the electric fieldstrength or magnetic field strength, Thomson was able to determine the value of 
= 1.758820 × 10
C kg
(2.1) Where
is the mass of the electron in kgand
is the magnitude of the charge on theelectron in coulomb (C). Since electronsare negatively charged, the charge on electronis –e.

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