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ncert ch10 chemistry class 11

ncert ch10 chemistry class 11

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291 THE
-BLOCK ELEMENTS
 The
-block elements of the Periodic Table are those in which the last electron enters the outermost 
-orbital. Asthe
-orbital can accommodate only two electrons, twogroups (1 & 2) belong to the s-block of the Periodic Table.Group 1 of the Periodic Table consists of the elements:lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium andfrancium. They are collectively known as the
alkali metals 
. These are so called because they form hydroxides onreaction with water which are strongly alkaline in nature. The elements of Group 2 include beryllium, magnesium,calcium, strontium, barium and radium. These elements with the exception of beryllium are commonly known asthe
alkaline earth metals 
. These are so called because their oxides and hydroxides are alkaline in nature and thesemetal oxides are found in the earth’s crust 
*
. Among the alkali metals sodium and potassium areabundant and lithium, rubidium and caesium have muchlower abundances (Table 10.1). Francium is highly radioactive; its longest-lived isotope
223
Fr has a half-life of only 21 minutes. Of the alkaline earth metals calcium andmagnesium rank fifth and sixth in abundance respectively in the earth’s crust. Strontium and barium have muchlower abundances. Beryllium is rare and radium is therarest of all comprising only 10
 –10
per cent of igneousrocks
(Table 10.2, page 299). The general electronic configuration of 
-block elementsis [noble gas]
ns 
1
for alkali metals and [noble gas]
ns 
2
for alkaline earth metals.
UNIT 10
 After studying this unit, you will beable to
describe the general charact-eristics of the alkali metals andtheir compounds;
explain the general characteristicsof the alkaline earth metals andtheir compounds;
describe the manufacture,properties and uses of industrially important sodium and calciumcompounds including Portlandcement;
appreciate the biologicalsignificance of sodium,potassium, magnesium andcalcium.
 THE
-BLOCK ELEMENTS
*
The thin, rocky outer layer of the Earth is crust.
A type of rock formed  from magma (molten rock) that has cooled and hardened.
 
The first element of alkali and alkaline earth metals differs in many respects from the other members of the group 
 
292CHEMISTR
Lithium and beryllium, the first elementsof Group 1 and Group 2 respectively exhibit some properties which are different from thoseof the other members of the respective group.In these anomalous properties they resemblethe second element of the following group. Thus, lithium shows similarities to magnesiumand beryllium to aluminium in many of their properties. This type of diagonal similarity iscommonly referred to as
diagonal relationship 
in the periodic table. The diagonal relationshipis due to the similarity in ionic sizes and /or charge/radius ratio of the elements.Monovalent sodium and potassium ions anddivalent magnesium and calcium ions arefound in large proportions in biological fluids. These ions perform important biologicalfunctions such as maintenance of ion balanceand nerve impulse conduction.
10.1GROUP 1 ELEMENTS: ALKALIMETALS
 The alkali metals show regular trends in their physical and chemical properties with theincreasing atomic number. The atomic,physical and chemical properties of alkalimetals are discussed below.
10.1.1Electronic Configuration
 All the alkali metals have one valence electron,
ns 
1
(Table 10.1) outside the noble gas core. The loosely held
-electron in the outermost  valence shell of these elements makes them themost electropositive metals. They readily loseelectron to give monovalent M
+
ions. Hence they are never found in free state in nature.increase in atomic number, the atom becomeslarger. The monovalent ions (M
+
) are smaller than the parent atom. The atomic and ionicradii of alkali metals increase on moving downthe group i.e., they increase in size while goingfrom Li to Cs.
10.1.3Ionization Enthalpy
 The ionization enthalpies of the alkali metalsare considerably low and decrease down thegroup from Li to Cs. This is because the effect of increasing size outweighs the increasingnuclear charge, and the outermost electron is very well screened from the nuclear charge.
10.1.4 Hydration Enthalpy
 The hydration enthalpies of alkali metal ionsdecrease with increase in ionic sizes.Li
+
> N
+
 
>
+
> Rb
+
> Cs
+
Li
+
has maximum degree of hydration andfor this reason lithium salts are mostly hydrated, e.g., LiCl· 2H
2
O
10.1.5 Physical Properties
 All the alkali metals are silvery white, soft andlight metals. Because of the large size, theseelements have low density which increasesdown the group from Li to Cs. However,potassium is lighter than sodium. The meltingand boiling points of the alkali metals are low indicating weak metallic bonding due to thepresence of only a single valence electron inthem. The alkali metals and their salts impart characteristic colour to an oxidizing flame. Thisis because the heat from the flame excites theoutermost orbital electron to a higher energy level. When the excited electron comes back tothe ground state, there is emission of radiationin the visible region as given below: Alkali metals can therefore, be detected by the respective flame tests and can bedetermined by flame photometry or atomicabsorption spectroscopy. These elements whenirradiated with light, the light energy absorbedmay be sufficient to make an atom lose electron.
ElementSymbolElectronic configuration
Lithium Li 1
2
2
1
Sodium Na 1s
2
2
2
2p
6
3
1
Potassium K 1
2
2
2
2
 p 
6
3
2
3
 p 
6
4
1
Rubidium Rb 1
2
2
2
2
 p 
6
3
2
3
 p 
6
3
10
4
2
4
 p 
6
5
1
Caesium Cs 1
2
2
2
2
 p 
6
3
2
3
 p 
6
3
10
4
2
4
 p 
6
4
10
5
2
5
 p 
6
6
1
or [Xe] 6
1
Francium Fr [Rn]7
1
10.1.2Atomic and Ionic Radii
 The alkali metal atoms have the largest sizesin a particular period of the periodic table. With
MetalLiNaKRbCs
ColourCrimsonYellowVioletRedBlueredviole
λ 
/nm670.8589.2766.5780.0455.5
 
293 THE
-BLOCK ELEMENTS
PropertyLithiumSodiumPotassiumRubidiumCaesiumFranciumLiNaKRbCsFr
 Atomic number31119375587 Atomic mass (g mol
 –1
)6.9422.9939.1085.47132.91(223)Electronic[He] 2
1
[Ne] 3
1
[Ar] 4
1
[Kr] 5
1
[Xe] 6
1
[Rn] 7
1
configurationIonization520496419403376~375enthalpy / kJ mol
 –1
Hydration506406330310276– enthalpy/kJ mol
 –1
Metallic152186227248265– radius / pmIonic radius76102138152167(180)M
+
/ pmm.p. / K454371336312302–  b.p / K161511561032961944– Density / g cm
 –3
0.530.970.861.531.90– Standard potentials3.042.7142.9252.9302.927– E
0
/ V for (M
+
/ M)Occurrence in18*2.27**1.84**78-12*2-6*~ 10
 –18
*lithosphere
 This property makes caesium and potassiumuseful as electrodes in photoelectric cells.
10.1.6 Chemical Properties
 The alkali metals are highly reactive due totheir large size and low ionization enthalpy. Thereactivity of these metals increases down thegroup.
(i)Reactivity towards air: 
 
 The alkali metalstarnish in dry air due to the formation of their oxides which in turn react withmoisture to form hydroxides. They burn vigorously in oxygen forming oxides.Lithium forms monoxide, sodium formsperoxide, the other metals formsuperoxides. The superoxide O
2 – 
ion isstable only in the presence of large cationssuch as K, Rb, Cs.
22
4LiO2LiO(oxide)
+
222
2NaONaO(peroxide)
+
22
MOMO(superoxide)
+
(M = K, Rb, Cs)In all these oxides the oxidation state of thealkali metal is +1. Lithium shows exceptional behaviour in reacting directly with nitrogen of air to form the nitride, Li
3
N as well. Because of their high reactivity towards air and water, they are normally kept in kerosene oil.
Problem 10.1
 What is the oxidation state of K in KO
2
?
Solution
 The superoxide species is represented asO
2 – 
; since the compound is neutral,therefore, the oxidation state of potassiumis +1.
*ppm (part per million), ** percentage by weight; † Lithosphere: The Earth’s outer layer: its crust and part of the upper mantle 
 Table 10.1 Atomic and Physical Properties of the Alkali Metals

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