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Reserves provided by distributed generation

Reserves provided by distributed generation

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Published by gilberto1096
CHAVES, FM JANNUZZI, GM; SILVA, LCP; BEDOYA, D - Operating - Reserves provided by distributed generation. Trabalho apresentado na 3rd WSEAS International Conference on Energy & Environment, realizada em Cambridge, Inglaterra, em 2008.
CHAVES, FM JANNUZZI, GM; SILVA, LCP; BEDOYA, D - Operating - Reserves provided by distributed generation. Trabalho apresentado na 3rd WSEAS International Conference on Energy & Environment, realizada em Cambridge, Inglaterra, em 2008.

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Published by: gilberto1096 on Apr 24, 2011
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Operating Reserves Provided by Distributed Generation
,FEM, FEEC, UNICAMPCidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz", Campinas, São PauloBRAZIL
framo@fem.unicamp.br http://lattes.cnpq.br/6867376592649835
duvier@ieee.org http://lattes.cnpq.br/0918270598381687
 jannuzzi@fem.unicamp.br http://www.fem.unicamp.br/~jannuzzi/index.html
lui@dsee.fee.unicamp.br http://www.dsee.fee.unicamp.br/~lui
 Abstract: - Among the ancillary services, the operating reserves are important researching aspects, which deal with supplying way and selling-buying prices. Currently, distributed generation (DG) rises as a new participant in providing ancillary services, therefore, it is of main importance in operating reserves subject. This work  shows some advantages and technical drawbacks by using DG when operating reserves are supplied. Different  sceneries were computed where the electric generation was performed in a centralized and non-centralized wayrespectively. A methodology for identifying the maximum DG, which can be allocated, is proposed; thismaximum level can be assessed without carrying out a negative impact in the network. Diverse DG technologies,which present better performance in supplying such reserves, are also presented. Key-Words: -
 Distributed Generation, Operating reserves, Ancillary services.
1 Introduction
The reliability concept deals with different elementsin electric power systems: security and sufficiency.Security is described as the capacity of the system toface different disturbs, this is used combined with protection devices, power dispatch and other auxiliary services. Sufficiency represents thecapability of the system for attending the demandrequirements in any time.In economical terms, security concept can be definedas a public good. Transit systems, national defenseinfrastructure, laws, etc, are considered as publicgoods also. Some authors consider the systemsecurity as a public good [1], being operating reservesof an electric system a key security element.As other public goods, power system security has noclear indications of its cost per user. Some users candisagree paying the operating reserves when theydon’t utilize such reserves and also if they are payingfor extra security which is provided for other users.The difficulty is defining the optimal acquisition levelfor every user and develops a methodology for carrying out this acquisition as well as its costs.The electricity markets in different countries arediscriminated mainly in the methodologies or  procedures in the operative reserve management. For instance, in Britain the reserves are obtained by long-term contracts. In the Nord Pool market, the energyutilities, are required to supply specific auxiliaryservices, when they take part into the electricitymarket. In California there is a reserve marketindependent and parallel to the electricity market. In New England, there is a capacity market, similar toan operative reserve market. In Brazil, the regulatoryagency establishes an operating reserve total for thewhole system, equal to the capacity of the major generator unit. Thus the Itaipu power plant with 6,3GW sets up the maximum level of the operatingreserves. The current capacity of the Brazilian Power System is 91,17 GW, being the operative reserve6,7% of the total installed capacity.Currently, electric systems are changing and with thedistributed generation (DG) growing up, thedistribution systems are turning into from passive toactive entities [2]. The new and future DG schemesare allowing a wide possibility of new energysuppliers and complementary services such asauxiliary services in which the operating reservestakes part into. DG is a new participant in the currentand future electric systems related to programmingand the operating reserves dispatch [3], [4].Dispatch of centralized units requires a higher generation level, which should supply energy to allthe network points, including all the load power andthe network losses in the whole system, thetransmission system and the final points related to thedistribution system [5].On the other hand, delivering active power by thegenerators in the distribution system, close to the
load, reduces the losses and consequently, improvesthe voltage levels and increases the system security.This work shows some technical advantages whenDG is used in the dispatch of active and reactive power reserves. In the following section, theformulation of the problem is described. Afterwards,it is showed and explanation of the methodologyused. It is also proposed a methodology for establishing the maximum DG level that can beinstalled and at the same time, caring of the negativeimpacts in the network and consequently themaximum DG level that can be provided for thesupply of operating reserves.An application is also showed; it is presented ananalysis when DG is used for supplying operatingreserves. Furthermore, the DG technologies thatattend more efficiently the reserves management isdescribed. Finally the conclusions of this work are presented.
2 Problem Formulation
The connection of energy supplies to the distributionsystems modifies the traditional hierarchicalgeneration way before known. The energy injectionin the distribution networks modifies the power flowand can develop several impacts such as: losses,investments, voltage profile, maintenance peoplesecurity, power quality, short circuit power, andsystem operation. This work analyzes the impact onthe active and reactive power losses, and the voltage profile impact on the network.
Loses modification when DG is used
The problematic associated to the DG impact hasseveral implications (economic, technical andenvironmental). For this reason, in the last yearsresearchers have began to take it into account.Currently due to the multiple studies, it is known thatDG presents limited advantages related to the lossesreduction. In [6] and [7] it is known the importance of the active and reactive energy supplied by the DG. Inthese works it is also demonstrated that with higher levels of DG the losses may increase. Thus it isnecessary known the DG capacity that can beinstalled without increasing the losses and notaffecting the voltage profile. It is required to knowthe energy generation limits through DG, it makesessential to know the maximum DG capacity for supplying the operating reserves.In the first part of this work, a methodology for determining the DG installation limits is presented. Itis also studied the influence on the losses in thetransmission, sub transmission and distributionsystems.
2.1 The DG and its role with the Operatingreserves
After presenting the DG advantages and drawbacks,it is possible to note that the operating reserves withDG present different implications; therefore, it is alsonecessary assessing the advantages anddisadvantages. With this aim, in the second part of this work is presented an analysis related to the activeand reactive energy supplied by DG when centralizedgenerators outages occur.
3 Methodology
The development of a methodology that lets know theDG energy production limits, allows assessingdirectly the DG maximum capacity for providingoperating reserves. In some works such as [8] and [9],it is described the importance of the DG allocationand establishing the necessary capacity for DGinstallation in order to reduce the distribution systemlosses. However, its neglects the analysis of possibleimpacts like overvoltages produced by DGinstallation.For knowing the effects on determined electricsystem when DG is studied, it is convenient to knowthe electric parameters of such system whencentralized generators are used. For instance, when aload flow is computed it is possible to know some of the most important electric parameters (such as:voltage profile and the losses level) without using DGon the system. After that, it is possible obtaining the base case for comparing with the alterations in the presence of generators connected to the distributionsystem. The base case allows also verifying the buses, which presents greater voltage drops and theareas and branches where the losses are more critical.This buses and areas are the best locations for the DGinstallation. After the DG installation in suchsceneries, the possible presence of overvoltages islower and the losses reduction is more effective.This section is based on the procedure presented in[8]. After assessing the DG units to be installed in thedistribution system, it is necessary to compute loadflows by increasing the generators capacity andassessing the new electric parameters in order toevaluate the overvoltage levels produced.This methodology is presented in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1
Methodology for establishing themaximum DG installation level.
This methodology allows computing the maximumDG installation level without damaging the network.It is also possible to establish the maximum DG levelfor the operating reserves. Some works such as [10]and [11] have presented a methodology for computing the amount of operating reserves whichcan be established for an electric system, butcurrently there are no studies related to the evaluationof such reserves in DG. The methodology proposedin this work arises in response to the necessity of determining the maximum DG admissible level for supplying operating reserves.
3.1 Study Case
In this work it is implemented a simulation for different sceneries with the aim of comparingtechnical centralized generation aspects and non-centralized generation when DG is involved.These sceneries were computed by using a load flow(static model) for an electric system which takes intoaccount voltage levels for transmission, subtransmission and distribution in order to assess theDG impact in every voltage level. The IEEE30 bussystem was used [12] for carrying out the study. Two buses on the medium voltage level were separated for generating the distribution network (low voltagelevel). At the buses 30 and 24 it was connected adistribution system of 70 buses TS2 [13] that is presented in Fig. (2).For computing the optimal flow the Newton-Raphsonand Fast-Decoupled Newton methods were used. Inorder to develop the simulations, the program for  power system analysis MATPOWER [14] wasutilized.
Fig. 2
Distribution circuit used.
 Below the process for the sceneries studied is presented as follows:Phase I: Load flow without DG (base case): for thiscase the active energy generation (P) and the reactive(Q) were delivered in a centralized way without DG.In this case it is considered that the centralizedgenerators supply all the active and reactive demand,supposing that the generators are delivering theoperating reserves scheduled previously. In this work the reserves classified in accordance with theresponse were not considered.Phase II: Losses and voltage profile analysis: After computing the base case, it is possible to obtain theareas where the higher losses level is presented. Theresults for the case analyzed in this work, in only oneof the distribution circuits and determined areas thatare represented with the gross line Fig. (2).In addition, Fig. (3) shows losses level in thedistribution circuit circuit which has more losses. It isimportant to emphasize that only one distributioncircuit presents the higher losses levelFig. (4) shows the voltage profile (V) for eachvoltage level: transmission, sub transmission anddistribution (gross line) at base case. The load flowresults show that the voltage levels decrease from thetransmission level until the more distant buses in thedistribution system. These areas are represented withcircles and they are named V1 to V7 Fig. (2).Phase III: Selection of the more appropriate buses for the DG installation: After obtaining the areas withmajor losses, it is possible to establish the areaswhere the generators can be allocated in thedistribution system.Phase IV: For determining the possible DG impactsaffecting the voltage level, the smaller generatorsshould be connected only to one of the distribution

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