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FourierLaplace

# FourierLaplace

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04/25/2011

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Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. Chapter 6. Fourier and Laplace Transforms
1
6. Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms
The basic theory for the description of periodic signals was formulated by Jean-BaptisteFourier (1768-1830) in the beginning of the 19
th
century. Fourier showed that an arbitraryperiodic function could be written as a sum of sine and cosine functions. This is the basisfor the transformation of time histories into the frequency domain and all kinds of digitalfrequency analysis.Jean-Baptiste Fourier (1768-1830)
6.1 Fourier Series
Let
x(t)
be a periodic function with period

)( x)nT ( x
=+
(6-1)where n is an integer. The functions

Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. Chapter 6. Fourier and Laplace Transforms
2
⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
2mcos)(c 2msin)(s
mm
π π
(6-2)are all periodic for an integer m over the time T. The functions have m whole periods overthe time T. Fourier showed that the arbitrary periodic function x(t) may be written as aninfinite sum of those sine and cosine functions.
⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ + ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
=
2msinb2mcosa)( x
m0mm
π π
(6-3)To get simpler formulas let
ω π
=
2and (6-3) becomes:
)msin(b)mcos(a)( x
0mmm
ω ω
=
+=
(6-4)To get the coefficients, multiply both sides in (6-4) by
cos(n
ω
t)
with n an integer. Then:
( ) ( )
+++++ =+=
=
)mnsin()mnsin( 2b)mncos()mncos( 2a)( x)ncos( or )msin(b)mcos(a)ncos()( x)ncos(
mm0mmm
ω ω ω ω  ω ω ω ω ω
(6-5)We now integrate both sides of (6-5) over the time interval (0, T). All trigonometricfunctions on the right side have a whole number of periods in the interval, and (nearly) allterms in the integral will become zero. But there is one exception. If we choose n = m,
cos((n-m)
ω
t) = 1
in the whole interval, and we will get from the right hand side:
n0n
=
∫
(6-6)

Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. Chapter 6. Fourier and Laplace Transforms
3From this:
2withdt )( x)ncos( 2a
0n
π ω ω
==
∫
(6-7)In the same way:
∫
=
0n
dt  xn 2b
)()sin(
ω
(6-8)For
n
= 0, which corresponds to the mean value of the signal, we will get a special case,and we write this term2
0
a
. We have then arrived at the formula for the Fourier series
:
2dt )( x)msin( 2bdt )( x)mcos( 2awith)msin(b)mcos(a 2a)( x
0m0m1mmm0
π ω ω ω ω ω
===++=
∫ ∫
=
(6-9)We note, that the only thing we have used in the derivation of the formula is the fact thatmost of the terms in the integrals turn out to be zero. This is called orthogonality, thefunctions are said to be orthogonal. This is mathematically equivalent with the sameconcept for vectors, and the scalar product for vectors then corresponds to the integral of the multiplied functions. We may write:

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