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10/30/08 11:18 AMMasteringPhysicsPage 1 of 10http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct

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Physics 5D Fall 2008

Assignment 3

Due at 2:00pm on Tuesday, October 28, 2008

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Deviations from the Ideal Gas Equation

Description:

Calculate the pressure of carbon dioxide gas using the ideal-gas and van der Waals equations, and find thepercentage difference between them.The derivation of the ideal gas equation employs two assumptions that are invalid for real gas molecules. First, the equationassumes that the molecules of the gas have no volume, which is not true for real molecules. Since the molecules will have somephysical volume, the volume that the gas molecules occupy will be increased by the volume that the molecules occupy at rest. Inaddition, the equation ignores any interactions among the molecules. However, such interactions were first observed in the 19thcentury by J. D. van der Waals. He realized that, because of the intermolecular forces in the gas, there is a small but measurableattraction among the molecules, which will reduce the pressure of the gas on the walls of the container. To correct for these twodeviations from an ideal gas, the

van der Waals equation

gives,where and are empirical constants, which are different for different gasses.For carbon dioxide gas , the constants in the van der Waals equation are and

.

Part A

If 1.00 of gas at 350 is confined to a volume of 400 , find the pressure of the gas using the ideal gasequation.

Hint A.1How to approach the problem

Use the ideal gas equation to calculate the pressure of the carbon dioxide. Be careful to use the correct units in yourcalculations.

Express your answer numerically in pascals.ANSWER:

=

Part B

Find the pressure of the gas using the van der Waals equation.

Hint B.1Using the van der Waals equationExpress your answer numerically in pascals.ANSWER:

=

Part C

What is the percentage difference of the van der Waals result from the ideal gas equation result?

Hint C.1Percentage difference

The fractional difference of from is given as . Don't forget to convert your answer to a percentage differencefrom a fractional difference.

Express your answer as a percentage.ANSWER:

Note that the van der Waals equation gives a lower pressure than the ideal gas equation.The gas is kept at the same temperature as it expands to a volume of 4000 .

Part D

10/30/08 11:18 AMMasteringPhysicsPage 2 of 10http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct

Find the pressure of the gas using the ideal gas equation in this case.

Express your answer numerically in pascals.ANSWER:

=

Part E

Find the pressure of the gas at this new volume using the van der Waals equation.

Express your answer numerically in pascals.ANSWER:

=

Part F

What is the percentage difference of the van der Waals result from the ideal gas equation result in this case?

Express your answer as a percentage.ANSWER:

Note that the van der Waals equation gives a lower pressure than the ideal gas equation once again. The difference is less,however, because the ratio decreases as increases (keeping constant). For small values of the ratio, theaverage distance between the molecules is large, so the corrections in the van der Waals equation become insignificant,and the equation reduces to the ideal gas equation for sufficiently small values of .

Kinetic Energy of Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Conceptual Question

Description:

Conceptual questions dealing with total translational kinetic energy and root-mean-square speed of gasmolecules where rms and total translational kinetic energy in one situation are given. (conceptual)The rms (root-mean-square) speed of a diatomic hydrogen molecule at 50 is 2000 . Note that 1.0 of diatomichydrogen at 50 has a total translational kinetic energy of 4000

.

Part A

Diatomic oxygen has a molar mass 16 times that of diatomic hydrogen. The root-mean-square speed for diatomic oxygenat 50 is:

Hint A.1Definition of root-mean-square speed

Each particle in a gas sample has a different velocity and hence a different kinetic energy. The average velocity of theseparticles is zero, because each particle is equally likely to have a positive or negative velocity in any direction. However, theaverage of the

squared

speeds can be determined from the definition of temperature:.This can be rearranged to show that.The square root of this quantity is referred to as the root-mean-square, or rms, speed:.

Choose the correct value of .ANSWER:

none of the above

Part B

The total translational kinetic energy of 1.0 mole of diatomic oxygen at 50 is:

Hint B.1Definition of average and total kinetic energy

10/30/08 11:18 AMMasteringPhysicsPage 3 of 10http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct

Each particle in a gas sample has a different velocity and hence a different kinetic energy. The average kinetic energy of theparticles in the gas, however, is defined to be directly proportional to the temperature of the gas. This temperature must beexpressed on the absolute, or Kelvin, scale:.The total kinetic energy is then the product of the average kinetic energy and the number of molecules in the gas.

Choose the correct total translational kinetic energy.ANSWER:

none of the above

Part C

The temperature of the diatomic hydrogen gas sample is increased to 100. The root-mean-square speed for diatomichydrogen at 100 is:

Choose the correct .ANSWER:

none of the above

Storing Ammonia

Description:

Interpret a phase diagram for ammonia using phase change terminology. Use phase diagram for determiningproper storage.Ammonia () is a colorless, pungent gas at standard pressure and temperature. It is a natural metabolic byproduct, usuallygetting released in respiration, sweat, and urine. However, because ammonia is caustic, exposure to large quantities of it cancause illness and even death. Despite its inherent dangers, ammonia is environmentally friendly in small quantities and has manyapplications in our economy. It can be used as a fertilizer, as a source of hydrogen gas for welding, as a refrigerant, in theproduction of nitric acid and sodium carbonate, in metallugy, and in the infamous smelling salts used to revive unconsciouspeople. Ammonia today can be mass produced inexpensively in chemical refineries.To safely produce and store ammonia, its physical and thermodynamic properties must be understood. Physically, ammonia is astrong base that reacts with acids and metals. The thermodynamic properties describing the phases of ammonia (solid, liquid,and gas) and the transitions between the phases are just as important. The relationship of these phases to pressure andtemperature is quantitatively described by ammonia's

pT

phase diagram. Note that, in this diagram, the pressure axis is not toscale.From the diagram, the melting temperature, boiling temperature,and other quantities can be determined for any pressure. Thepressure and temperature range for each of the phases is shown byits own unique area of the graph. The lines bounding each of thephases on the diagram represent the temperatures and pressures atwhich two states can coexist.For this problem, any section of curve on the diagram can be namedusing two letters on the boundary in alphabetical order. Otherpoints not lying on the boundary can also be used to help identifyvarious thermodynamic processes.

Part A

On the phase diagram, which section of curve represents the pressure and temperature values at which ammonia will boil?

Part A.1Describe boiling in terms of phase changes

Boiling is the transition from one phase to another with both phases existing together. The phases and direction of changeinvolved in boiling are __________ to __________.

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