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Optical Communication-DOC 29

Optical Communication-DOC 29

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Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.

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12/02/2012

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OPTICAL COMMUNICATION
K.V.S.S.S.S.SAIRAM, Dr. T. JANARDHANA RAO AND Dr. P.V.D SOMASEKHAR RAOABSTRACT
 Networks today are the product of reactive evolution to demand. Circuit-switched networks built for providing POTS(Plain Old Telephone Service) evolved into the current multi-layered networks in reaction to pressures for new servicesand increased capacity. Growth of data traffic in particular has consistently outstripped the most aggressive projections,forcing service providers to continuously build out their networks using this inefficient and costly network model.Responding to these pressures, the telecommunications industry has built networks, which may well be reaching theend of their viability. Multi-layered networks have become so complex that the cost of continuous development to meetdemands is becoming prohibitive. This section presents three key issues that have brought traditional networksarchitectures to a crossroads: complexity, cost and the need to protect investments.
Keywords
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Optical Communication, Optical Networking and Optical Switching, POTS etc
1. INTRODUCTION
 Today's telecommunications service providers arefaced with what appears to be an insoluble problem.They must maintain and even increase profitability,while responding to an exponential growth indemand with networks that are even more complexand costly to deploy and maintain.Since the requirements for both profitability andthe ability to offer new, revenue-rich services aregivens, the solution must be found in the networksService providers must find a way to build networkswith the flexibility of IP, the reliability of SONET/SDH, and the scalability of optics at coststhat will allow them to offer services at competitive prices. Photonic Service Switching (PSS) offersexactly that: a new network model that permitsgraceful evolution to simpler, more cost-effectivecore networks.This article describes key enablers of the PhotonicService Switching intelligent core network solution.It begins with a very brief overview of some of thereasons layered network architecture has reached acrossroads. It then briefly examines network architectures that have been proposed as evolutionaryalternatives to traditional layered network architecture. The final section outlines how aPhotonic Service Switching network is managed,focusing on specific challenges and benefits, such astraffic engineering, protection and restoration, and possible new services. This section briefly reviewssome approaches, including Photonic ServiceSwitching, proposed to move network design out of the current impasse.
(i) MESH TOPOLOGIES
 The ring versus mesh debate is all butclosed. SONET rings are reliable, but they lack theflexibility required by today's market, are costly, andare inefficient. They do not make best use of available bandwidth. 1+1 protection, for example,uses only half the available bandwidth, with the other half on reserve as protection against failures.
 
Mesh topologies, on the other hand, canoffer great flexibility and more efficient use of resources. They can optimize bandwidth use of Differentiated Services. There is little doubt,therefore, that SONET rings will be replaced by moreflexible topologies. Support for pure meshedenvironments will soon be the norm. Evolution tomesh topologies alone is not a complete solution,however. Traditional layered networks with meshtopologies are still complex, costly and difficult toscale. A more complete solution requiresconsolidation of network layers.
(ii) CONSOLIDATING LAYERS
 Two important alternatives have been proposed to the traditional layered network model.The first, IP over optics, separates services from theoptical transport but must maintain separate network elements for the various services carried. The second,Photonic Service Switching brings together servicesand transport through one core network element.
(iii) LAYERED NETWORKS
 Overlay networks require management of their different layers, such as the IP and ATM layers, asthough they were separate networks. Intelligence can be implemented for some layers, but is limited to thespecific layers where it is implemented. Layers donot communicate with each other, so managementand scalability of the network as a whole are severelycompromised.
(iv) IP over DWDM
 IP over DWDM uses IP addressing and routingover DWDM networks. Though it appears attractive,IP over DWDM is not a complete architecture andleaves many key issues unresolved.First, since IP over DWDM uses packet line cardsfor all traffic, network operators deploying thissolution are obliged to pay premium price for alltraffic. They cannot benefit from the lower cost of using wavelength cards for transit traffic.Second, IP over DWDM requires separatenetwork management systems for routing andwavelength.Third, service types are limited: IP over DWDMcannot provide TDM, private line type connectionsfor example. Since routers do not support TDM, it iseither necessary tom run TDM over IP, or tomaintain parallel TDM and IP networks.
Figure 1 : IP Over OXC/DWDM(v) IP over OXC/DWDM
 The IP over OXC/DWDM (in fact IP over OXC over DWDM) approach extends the IP over DWDMmodel to include wavelength services as shown in theFigure 1. It proposes using routers to aggregatetraffic and wavelength switches to handle transittraffic. IP over OXC/DWDM requires additional corenetwork devices to aggregate TDM traffic, and hencestill relies on overlay network architecture for serviceintegration. As such, it does not scale well.
2. PHOTONIC SERVICE SWITCHING (PSS)
 Photonic Service Switching introduced in 2001goes the final step to enabling an intelligent, peer- based core network solution. Using TOPS (TDM +Optical+ Packets) architecture enabled by G-MPLS(Generalized Multi-Label Switching Protocol), PSSsupports the G-MPLS view of a common control plane for all layers of services.With Photonic Service Switching, service providers do not have to bet their capital investmentsagainst future demand for specific traffic types. PSSdoes not favor packet, for example, over other traffictypes. It is, in fact, traffic-type neutral. Hence, it notonly permits complete transition to a more efficientand cost-effective peer-based network model, butoffers investment protection as well.
 
(i) PSS NETWORK (PSSN)
 A Photonic Service Switching network is a peer- based intelligent optical core network. It applies the power of peering, traditionally found in datanetworks to transport services. All network elements peer with all other elements. Through an Inter-Gateway Protocol (IGP) they have network information (such as link type, link and bandwidthavailability, and route reachability) and use thisinformation dynamically and intelligently. Theevolution to Photonic Service Switching networks ismade possible by three recent innovations as shownin the Figure 2. G-MPLS, which extends thecapabilities of MPLS to TDM and wavelength. TOPSarchitecture, which consolidates timeslot, wavelengthand packet traffic onto one network layer.Photonic Burst Switching technology, which has been used to build a new class of intelligent, opticalcore switch designed to handle packet, TDM andwavelength traffic simultaneously. Together, theseinnovations permit deployment of an intelligent,optical core network with a common control plane,and management of all network layers with thePhotonics Core Manager.
Figure 2: PSS NETWORK 
This section outlines how Photonic ServiceSwitching achieves network layer consolidation andsome key benefits of this consolidation, describesmanagement of a PSS network with the PhotonicsCore Manager, and offers some examples of newrevenue generating services made possible by PSS.
(ii) SERVICES AND TRANSPORTINTEGRATION
Layer integration is key to the efficiency and costeffectiveness of a Photonic Service Switchingnetwork. Core network elements and links can bemanaged with a single management system andtraffic can be directed through paths that make bestuse of network resources.
(iii) PROVISIONING
 All layers of a Photonic Service Switchingcore network can be provisioned through a singlemanagement system. The architecture and intelligenceof a PSS core network make possible restorationthrough the core. As well G-MPLS- aware edge devicesoutside the core can become peers of the PSS coredevices for dynamic end-to-end provisioning. If theedge devices are not G-MPLS - sware, PSS cannonetheless use G-MPLS to create tunnels in the PSSnetwork. Alternatively, an OSS can be used in concertwith the Photonics Core Manager to provide end-to-end provisioning. Consolidation of layers in a PhotonicService Switching network does not mean that trafficcan or should be managed in the same way for alllayers. PSS manages each layer according to its uniqueattributes, and uses the inherent differences of the layersto ensure optimal use of network resources.For example to manage path allocation on theSONET/SDH and optical layers, Photonic ServiceSwitching employs a hierarchy of Label SwitchedPaths (LSPs), developed within the framework of G-MPLS. The hierarchy defines simple rules that prevent, for instance, TDM LSPs from being createdwithin packet LSPs. Within this hierarchy, links at alllevels are visible to higher levels. Once they have been created, lower level links are made known tohigher layer links through IGP advertisements. Thisvisibility permits aggregation across layers: higher-level LSPs that have the same source and destinationnodes can be optimized and their number reduced.
(iv) TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
 Photonic Service Switching offers network levelQuality of Service (QoS). It offers sophisticatedcapabilities such as Weighted Random Early Discard(WRED) and Weighted Fair Queue (WFQ). Its QoSmappings permit flexibility in the selection of queuingmechanisms, which span the full range of DifferentiatedServices from those with guarantees to those withoutguarantees. Switches in the network can be configuredto allow establishment of packet LSPs with or withoutguaranteed bandwidth, as needed. When an LSPrequires guaranteed bandwidth, PSS employs the CACmechanism that checks and reserves resources. Services

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