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Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.

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Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
1 
An overview of Geographic Restriction Mobility Models
Ibrahim khider ,Prof.WangFurong.Prof.YinWeiHua,SackoABSTRACT
In this paper, we present and visit the limitation of Random mobility model, theunconstraint motion of mobile node. Mobile nodes, in the Random Waypoint andRandom walk mobility models, are allowed to move freely and randomlyanywhere in the simulation field. However, in most real life applications, weobserve that a node’s movement is subject to the environment. In particular, themotions of vehicles are bounded to the freeways or local streets in the urban area,and on campus the pedestrians may be blocked by the buildings and otherobstacles. Therefore, the nodes may move in a pseudo-random way on predefinedpathways in the simulation field. Some recent works address this characteristic andintegrate the paths and obstacles into mobility models. We call this kind of mobility model a mobility model with geographic restriction.
 Keywords:
Mobility models; Mobile Ad hoc Network; review
.1
 
INTRODUCTION
Mobility models are needed in the design of strategies for location updating and paging, radioresource management (e.g., dynamic channelallocation schemes), and technical network planningand design (e.g., cell and location area layout andnetwork dimensioning). The purpose of mobilitymodels is to describe typical terminal movement sothat the analysis for these purposes can be made.Thus, the movement pattern of users plays animportant role in performance analysis of mobile andwireless networks, especially in third-generationmobile communications [1]. Currently, there are twotypes of mobility models used in the simulation of networks: traces and synthetic models [2]. Traces arethose mobility patterns that are observed in real-lifesystems. Traces provide accurate information,especially when they involve a large number of participants and an appropriately long observationperiod. However, new network environments (e.g. adhoc networks) are not easily modeled if traces havenot yet been created. In this type of situation, it isnecessary to use synthetic models. Synthetic modelsattempt to realistically represent the behaviors of MNs without the use of traces. Therefore, variousresearchers proposed different kinds of mobilitymodels, attempting to capture various characteristicsof mobility and represent mobility in a somewhat'realistic' fashion. Much of the current research hasfocused on the so-called synthetic mobility models[2]. One frequently used mobility model in MobileAdhoc Network (MANET) simulations is theRandom Waypoint model [3], in which nodes moveindependently to a randomly chosen destination witha randomly selected velocity. The simplicity of Random Waypoint model may have been one reasonfor its widespread use in simulations. . However,MANETs may be used in different applicationswhere complex mobility patterns exist. Hence, recentresearch has started to focus on the alternativemobility models with different mobilitycharacteristics. In these models, the movement of anode is more or less restricted by its history, or othernodes in the neighborhood or the environment. Weprovide a categorization for Geographic RestrictionMobility Models (GRMM) into three classes basedon their specific mobility characteristics as shown infigure1 where the movement of nodes is bounded bystreets, freeways or obstacles [4]. In this model,Mobile Nodes (MNs) can only move along thepredefined graph including vertexes and arcsgenerated based on a real city map. City Section,Freeway, Manhattan, Obstacle, and Graph-basedMobility Models belong to this category. Theremainder of this paper is organized as follows. InSection 2, we describe the commonly used RandomWaypoint model. The mobility models withgeographic restriction are discussed, we describe twosuch mobility models, Pathway Mobility Model andObstacle Mobility Model, in the Section 3 andSection 4, respectively. In section 5 we describeGraph based mobility model. In section 6 we presentthe effect of GRMM in the performance of wirelessad hoc networks. Finally, we conclude this paperbriefly discussing the characteristics of PathwayMobility Model and Obstacle Mobility Model insection 7.
 
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
2 Fig. 1. The categories of Geographic RestrictionMobility Models in Mobile Ad hoc Network 
2.Random Waypoint Mobility Model
In random-based mobility models, the mobilenodes move randomly and freely without restrictions.To be more specific, the destination, speed anddirection are all chosen randomly and independentlyof other nodes. This kind of model has been used inmany simulation studies. One frequently usedmobility model, the Random Waypoint model.The Random Waypoint Model became a'benchmark' mobility model to evaluate the MANETprotocols, because of its simplicity and wideavailability. To generate the node trace of theRandom Waypoint model the setdest tool from theCMU Monarch group may be used. This tool isincluded in the widely used network simulator. TheRandom Waypoint Mobility Model includes pausetimes between changes in direction and/or speed. AnMN begins by staying in one location for a certainperiod of time. Once this time expires, the MNchooses a random destination in the simulation areaand a speed that is uniformly distributed between[minspeed
 ,
maxspeed]. The MN then travels towardthe newly chosen destination at the selected speed.Upon arrival, the MN pauses for a specified timeperiod before starting the process again. Figure 2shows an example traveling pattern of an MN usingthe Random Waypoint Mobility Model starting at arandomly chosen point or position; the speed of theMN in this figure is uniformly chosen betweenminimum and maximum speed [2]. In the RandomWaypoint model, the speed and pause time are thetwo key parameters that determine the mobilitybehavior of nodes. If the speed is small and the pausetime is long, the topology of Ad Hoc network becomes relatively stable. On the other hand, if thenode moves fast and the pause time is small, thetopology is expected to be highly dynamic. Varyingthese two parameters, especially the speed parameter,the Random Waypoint model can generate variousmobility scenarios with different levels of nodalspeed. Therefore, it seems necessary to quantify thenodal speed.Fig. 2. Example of node movement in the RandomWaypoint Model
Discussion
The Random Waypoint model and its variants aredesigned to mimic the movement of mobile nodes ina simplified way. Because of its simplicity of implementation and analysis, they are widelyaccepted. However, they may not adequately capturecertain mobility characteristics of some realisticscenarios, including temporal dependency, spatialdependency and geographic restriction:- Temporal Dependency of Velocity: In RandomWaypoint and other random models, the velocity of mobile node is a memoryless random process, i.e.,the velocity at current epoch is independent of theprevious epoch. Thus, some extreme mobilitybehavior, such as sudden stop, sudden accelerationand sharp turn, may frequently occur in the tracegenerated by the Random Waypoint model. However,in many real life scenarios, the speed of vehicles andpedestrians will accelerate incrementally. In addition,the direction change is also smooth.- Spatial Dependency of Velocity: In RandomWaypoint and other random models, the mobile nodeis considered as an entity that moves independentlyof other nodes. However, in some scenariosincluding battlefield communication and museumtouring, the movement pattern of a mobile node maybe influenced by certain specific leader node in itsneighborhood. Hence, the mobility of various nodesis indeed correlated.Geographic Restrictions of Movement
:
In RandomWaypoint and other random models, the mobilenodes can move freely within simulation fieldwithout any restrictions. However, in many realisticcases, especially for the applications used in urbanareas, the movement of a mobile node may bebounded by obstacles, buildings, streets or freeways.Geographic RestrictionMobility ModelsPathwayMobilit
y
Model
 
ObstacleMobilityModelGraph-basedMobilitymodel
 
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
3Random Waypoint model and its variants fail torepresent some mobility characteristics likely to existin Mobile Ad Hoc networks. Thus, several othermobility models were proposed. In the following fewsections, we shall discuss those models, according tothe classification in Figure 1 [4].
3.Pathway Mobility Model
One simple way to integrate geographicconstraints into the mobility model is to restrictthe node movement to the pathways in the map.The map is predefined in the simulation field asfollowing:City Section Model:
-
In City Section Mobility Model, the modeledarea is a street network that represents a sectionof a city. All MNs must follow predefined pathsand behavior guidelines (e.g. traffic laws).Without regard to obstacles and trafficregulations, MNs do not have the ability toroam freely in the real world. The streets andspeed limits on the streets are based on the typeof city being simulated. For example, the streets
 
may form a grid in the downtown area of thecity with a high-speed highway near the borderof the simulation area to represent a loop aroundthe city. Each MN begins the simulation at adefined point on some street, and then randomlychooses a destination, which is also predefinedby a point on some street. The node travels to adestination through the shortest path betweentwo points. Upon reaching the destination, thenode pauses for a specified time, then choosesanother destination and repeats the process. Thismodel, as well as the rest of the graph-basedmodels discussed here, does not account fortraffic lights or congestion. That is, nodes areallowed to drive through each other [2][5].
 
City Map model: - Tian, Hahner and Becker etal. [6] utilize a random graph to model the mapof city. This graph can be either randomlygenerated or carefully defined based on certainmap of a real city. The vertices of the graphrepresent the buildings of the city, and the edgesmodel the streets and freeways between thosebuildings. Each node a destination is randomlychosen and the node moves towards thisdestination through the shortest path along theedges. Upon arrival, the node pauses for Tpause time and again chooses a new destinationfor the next movement. This procedure isrepeated until the end of simulation.Unlike the Random Waypoint model where thenodes can move freely, the mobile nodes in thismodel are only allowed to travel on the pathways.However, since the destination of each motion phaseis randomly chosen, a certain level of randomnessstill exists for this model. So, in this graph basedmobility model, the nodes are traveling in a pseudo-random fashion on the pathways. Similarly, in theFreeway mobility model and Manhattan mobilitymodels [7], the movement of mobile node is alsorestricted to the pathway in the simulation field. Thefreeway map consists of several freeways, and eachhas lanes in both directions. The Manhattan mapconsists of a number of horizontal and vertical streetsforming a grid, and each street has two lanes in eachdirection. At an intersection of a horizontal and avertical street, the node can turn left with theprobability of 0.25, right with 0.25, and go straightwith 0.5. The Freeway model does not allow a nodeto change the lane it is driving in, while theManhattan model gives a node some freedom tochange its direction. Like the City Section Model,these models do not account for inter-node and intra-node relationships in both models. However, thesemodels do not enforce node speed limits. Fig.3illustrates the maps used for Freeway, Manhattan andPathway models.Fig. 3. The pathway graphs used in the Freeway,Manhattan and Pathway Model
4.Obstacle Mobility Model
Obstacle Mobility Model allows a user to define thepositions of obstacles (e.g. buildings). Themovement graph, which is a set of pathways alongwhich the mobile nodes move, is defined by theVoronoi Diagram of the obstacle corners andVoronoi graph with obstacle as shown in figure 4and figure 5 respectively. This model uses theshortest path routing policy to move the nodes

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