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Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.

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07/23/2011

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PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MULTIHOP WIRELESSMOBILE AH-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS
V.C .Patil
(1)
, Rajashree.V.Biradar
(2)
, Dr. R. R. Mudholkar
(3) ,
Dr. S. R. Sawant
(4)
(1)
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Bellari Institute of Technology and ManagementBellary-583104,Karnataka,India.patilvc@rediffmail.com
(2)
Department of Information Science and Engineering, Bellari Institute of Technology and Managementbellary-583104,Karnataka,India.rajashreebiradar@yahoo.com.
(3)
Department of Electronics Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004,Maharasra ,India.rrm_eln@unishivaji.ac.in
(4)
Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004,Maharasra ,Indiasrms_eln@unishivaji.ac.in
ABSTRACT
As of date, wireless communication is one of the most demanding areas of researchwithin networking, with many proposed, but unverified protocols. The success of the proposed protocols depends on the availability of robust implementations thatenable both real-time test beds and non-real time simulations. Wireless ad-hocnetwork is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network without theaid of any centralized administration or standard support services regularly availableon conventional networks. Routing in wireless ad-hoc networks is nontrivial due tohighly dynamic environment. In recent years several routing protocols targeted atmobile ad-hoc networks are being proposed and prominent among them are DSDV,AODV and DSR. The performance comparison of these protocols considering allthe characteristics that should be possessed by routing protocols is the fundamentalstep towards the invention of new routing protocol. This paper does the detailedcomprehensive analysis of routing protocols using ns2 simulator. All protocols areprovided with identical traffic load and mobility patterns. Results indicate that theperformance of DSR is the best among all routing protocols.
Keywords:
AODV, DSR, DSDV, Ad-hoc network, Random way point model.
1INTRODUCTION
Wireless networking is an emerging technologythat allows users to access information and serviceselectronically, regardless of their geographicposition. Wireless networks can be infrastructurenetworks [5] orinfrastructureless (Ad-hoc) networks.An Ad-hoc network[6] is a collection of mobilenodes which forms a temporary network without theaid of centralized administration or standard supportdevices regularly available in conventional networks.These nodes generally have a limited transmissionrange and, so, each node seeks the assistance of itsneighboring nodes in forwarding packets and hencethe nodes in an ad-hoc network can act as bothrouters and hosts, thus a node may forward packetsbetween other nodes as well as run user applications.By nature these types of networks are suitablefor situations where either no fixed infrastructureexists or deploying network is not possible. Ad-hocmobile networks have found many applications invarious fields like military, emergency, conferencingand sensor networks. Each of these application areashas their specific requirements for routing protocols.Since the network nodes are mobile, an Ad-hocnetwork will typically have a dynamic topologywhich will have profound effects on network characteristics. Network nodes will often be batterypowered, which limits the capacity of CPU, memory,and bandwidth. This will require network functionsthat are resource effective. Furthermore, the wireless(radio) media will also affect the behavior of thenetwork due to fluctuating link bandwidths resultingfrom relatively high error rates. These uniquefeatures pose several new challenges in the design of wireless, ad-hoc networking protocols. Network functions such as routing, address allocation,authentication, and authorization must be designed tocope with a dynamic and volatile network topology.In order to establish routes between nodes whichare farther than a single hop, specially configuredrouting protocols are engaged. The unique feature of these protocols is their ability to trace routes in spiteof a dynamic topology. Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc
Special Issue on Ubiquitous Computing Security SystemsUbiCC Journal Volume 4 696
 
 
networks can be basically classified as Proactive(table driven) routing protocols and Reactive (on-demand) routing protocols[4].In Proactive routing, routes to all destinationsare computed a priori and link states are maintainedin node’s routing tables in order to compute routes inadvance. In order to keep the information up to date,nodes need to update their information periodically.The main advantage of proactive routing is when asource needs to send packets to a destination, theroute is already available, i.e., there is no latency.The disadvantages of proactive routing are someroutes may never be used and dissemination of routing information will consume a lot of the scarcewireless network bandwidth when the link state andnetwork topology change fast.(This is especially truein a wireless Ad-hoc network.)In Reactive routing, protocols update routinginformation only when a routing requirement ispresented. This implies thata route is built onlywhen required. The main advantageof Reactiverouting is that the precious bandwidth of wirelessAd-hoc networks is greatly saved.The maindisadvantage of Reactive routingis if the topology onetworks changes rapidly, a lot of update packetswill be generated and disseminated over the networkwhich will use a lot of precious bandwidth, andfurthermore, may cause too much fluctuation of routes.The rest of the paper is structured as follows.Protocol descriptions in section2, Mobility metric insection3, Simulation methodology in section 4,Performance evaluation metrics and results in section5 and Conclusion in section 6.
2 PROTOCOL DESCRIPTIONS
This section gives short descriptions of the threead-hoc routing protocols studied in this work.
2.1 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector –DSDV
DSDV [17,26] is a hop-by-hop distance vectorrouting protocol. DSDV is a Proactive routingprotocol. This implies that each network nodemaintains a routing table that contains the next-hopfor and number of hops to all reachable destinations.Periodical broadcasts of routing updates attempt tokeep the routing table completely updated at alltimes. To guarantee loop-freedom, DSDV uses aconcept of sequence numbers to indicate thefreshness of a route. A route R is considered morefavorable than R' if R has a greater sequence numberor, if the routes have the same sequence number, Rhas lower hop-count. The sequence number for aroute is set by the destination node and increased byone for every new originating route advertisement.When a node along a path detects a broken route to adestination D,it advertises its route to D with aninfinite hop-count and a sequence number increasedby one. Route loops can occur when incorrectrouting information is present in the network after achange in the network topology, e.g., a broken link.DSDV uses triggered route updates when thetopology changes. The transmission of updates isdelayed to introduce a damping effect when thetopology is changing rapidly. The parameter valuesused for DSDV in the simulations are given in Table1 and are the same as in [1].
Table 1:
DSDV Simulation parametersPeriodic route update interval15sPeriodic updates missed before link declaredbroken3Route advertisement aggregation time 1sMaximum packets buffered per node perdestination5
2.2Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector –AODV
AODV [13,15,16] is a reactive routing protocol.That is, AODV requests a route only when neededand does not require nodes to maintain routes todestinations that are not communicating. The processof finding routes is referred to as the routeacquisition. AODV uses sequence numbers in a waysimilar to DSDV to avoid routing loops and toindicate the freshness of a route.Whenever a node needs to find a route toanother node it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ)message to all its neighbors. The RREQ message isflooded through the network until it reaches thedestination or a node with a fresh route to thedestination. On its way through the network, theRREQ message initiates creation of temporary routetable entries for the reverse route in the nodes itpasses. If the destination, or a route to it, is found,the route is made available by unicasting a RouteReply (RREP) message back to the source along thetemporary reverse path of the received RREQmessage. On its way back to the source, the RREPmessage initiates creation of routing table entries forthe destination in intermediate nodes. Routing tableentries expire after a certain time-out period.Neighbors are detected by periodic HELLOmessages (a special RREP message). If a node x doesnot receive HELLO messages from a neighbor ythrough which it sends traffic, that link is deemedbroken and a link failure indication (a triggeredRREP message) is sent to its active neighbors. Thelatter refers to the neighbors of x that were using thebroken link between x and y. When the link failuremessages eventually reach the affected sources, thesecan choose to either stop sending data or to request anew route by sending out new RREQ messages. Theparameter values used in the simulations are given inTable 2.
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Table 2:
Parameter values for AODVHELLO interval15sActive route time-out300sRoute reply lifetime300sAllowed HELLO loss2Request retries3Time between retransmitted requests3sTime to hold packets awaiting routes8sMaximum rate for sending replies for aroute1/s
2.3Dynamic Source Routing – DSR
Dynamic Source Routing [6,10,17,25] is areactive routing protocol which uses source routingto deliver data packets. Headers of data packets carrythe sequence of nodes through which the packet mustpass. This means that intermediate nodes only needto keep track of their immediate neighbors in order toforward data packets. The source, on the other hand,needs to know the complete hop sequence to thedestination.As in AODV, the route acquisition procedure inDSR requests a route by flooding a Route Requestpacket. A node receiving a Route Request packetsearches its route cache, where all its known routesare stored, for a route to the requested destination. If no route is found, it forwards the Route Requestpacket further on after having added its own addressto the hop sequence stored in the Route Requestpacket. The Route Request packet propagatesthrough the network until it reaches either thedestination or a node with a route to the destination.If a route is found, a Route Reply packet containingthe proper hop sequence for reaching the destinationis unicasted back to the source node. DSR does notrely on bi-directional links since the Route Replypacket is sent to the source node either according to aroute already stored in the route cache of the replyingnode, or by being piggybacked on a Route Requestpacket for the source node. However, bi-directionallinks are assumed throughout this study. Then thereverse path in the Route Request packet can be usedby the Route Reply message. The DSR protocol hasthe advantage of being able to learn routes from thesource routes in received packets.To avoid unnecessarily flooding the network with Route Request messages, the route acquisitionprocedure first queries the neighboring nodes to seeif a route is available in the immediate neighborhood.This is done by sending a first Route Requestmessage with the hop limit set to zero, thus it will notbe forwarded by the neighbors. If no response isobtained by this initial request, a new Route Requestmessage is flooded over the entire network. Theparameter values used in the DSR simulations aretaken from [1] and are given in Table 3.
Table 3:
Parameters for DSR.Time between retransmitted requests500msSize of source route header carrying n addresses bytes4n+4Time-out for non propagating search30 msTime to hold packets awaiting routes30sMaximum rate for sending replies for aroute1/s
3 MOBILITY METRIC
This section defines a mobility metric used inthis simulation , henceforth referred to as mobility,intended to capture and quantify the kind of nodemotion relevant for an ad-hoc routingprotocol[17][22]. Ad-hoc routing protocols must takeaction when the relative motion of nodes causes linksto break or form and a mobility metric should thusbe proportional to the number of such events. Themetric should be independent of the particularnetwork technology used. Therefore mobility metricis proposed which is geometric in the sense that thespeed of a node in relation to other nodes ismeasured, while it is independent of any linksformed between nodes in the network.The study in [1] uses the pause time at waypointsin a random motion model as a mobility metric. Thismakes sense for the particular motion model used inthat study but is too ad-hoc to be useful for genericmotion models. For instance, the pause time metric isill-defined when node motion is continuous or whennodes use different pause times. Moreover, the speedat which nodes move between way-points is alsorelevant for how often links break and form.The mobility metric proposed here describes themobility of a scenario with a single value M which isa function of the relative motion of the nodes takingpart in a scenario. If l(n,t) is the position of node n attime t, the relative velocity v(x,y,t) between nodes xand y at time t isThe mobility measure, M, between any pair (x, y) of nodes is defined as their absolute relative speedtaken as an average over the time, T, the mobility ismeasured. The formula for obtaining M
xy
is givenbelow.In order to arrive at the total mobility metric, M, fora scenario, the mobility measured in (2) is averaged
Special Issue on Ubiquitous Computing Security SystemsUbiCC Journal Volume 4 698

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