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Broadcast Strategies Meghanathan 76

Broadcast Strategies Meghanathan 76

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Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (ISSN 1992-8424), is an international scientific journal dedicated to advancing the information and communication technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the disciplines of information technology and the impact on society. In particular UBICC journal provides global perspective on new developments in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies. The journal is committed to provide platform to present discuss and exchange experimental or theoretical results, trend-setting ideas in the emerging field of ubiquitous computing and related disciplines. UBICC publishes peer-reviewed, interesting, timely and accessible contributions from researchers from all over the globe. The Journal is an essential resource for researchers and educators who wish to understand the implications of ubiquitous computing. In addition to regular publication UBICC also participate in international conferences on related subject and publishes the selected papers with the special issue.

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08/30/2012

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Performance Studies of MANET Routing Protocols in the Presence of Different Broadcast Route Discovery Strategies
Dr. Natarajan Meghanathan
Department of Computer ScienceJackson State UniversityJackson, MS 39217Email: nmeghanathan@jsums.edu
ABSTRACT
Simulation studies for the Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) routing protocols have sofar employed flooding as the default mechanism of route discovery. During flooding,each node broadcasts the packet exactly once, causing the broadcast storm problem [1].Several efficient broadcasting strategies [1][2] that reduce the number of retransmittedroute query packets and the number of retransmitting nodes have been proposed in theliterature. These include the probability-based, area-based and neighbor-knowledge based methods to reduce the retransmission overhead. Our contribution in this paper is anns-2 simulation based analysis on the impact of employing these broadcasting strategiesfor route discovery on the hop count and stability of routes. We use the minimum-hop based Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol [3] and the stability-based Flow-Oriented Routing Protocol (FORP) [4] as the routing protocols for our analysis. Wecompare the hop count and stability of DSR and FORP routes determined under conditions that guarantee at least 92-95% success in route discoveries and simultaneouslyminimize the number of retransmissions and retransmitting nodes.
Keywords:
Broadcasting, Routing, Stability, Hop count, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
1
 
INTRODUCTION
A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) is adynamic distributed system of autonomously movingwireless nodes (such as laptops, personal digitalassistants, etc) and lacks a fixed infrastructure. Thenetwork has limited bandwidth as the wirelessmedium is shared and is prone to transmissioninterference. Nodes are battery-powered andoperated with a limited transmission range. As aresult, routes in MANETs are often multi-hop innature and have to be discovered by the nodesthemselves. There is no centralized administrationlike in cellular networks. Several unicast andmulticast MANET routing protocols have been proposed in the literature. The route discovery could be either proactive or reactive. In the proactiveapproach, nodes determine and maintain routes for every possible source-destination pair, irrespective of their requirement. Reactive or on-demand MANETrouting protocols determine a route only whenrequired. It has been observed [5][6] that with adynamically changing network topology where routeaccuracy and routing overhead are crucial, on-demand routing protocols are to be preferred over the proactive protocols. We will focus only on on-demand routing for the rest of this paper.Currently, all the on-demand MANET routing protocols employ a simple form of broadcastingcalled flooding to discover the routes. Whenever asource node has data to send to a destination node, but does not have the route to the same, it willinitiate a broadcast route-query process. In the caseof flooding, the source node broadcasts a Route-Request-Query (RREQ) packet to its neighbors. Eachnode in the network will broadcast this RREQ packetexactly once when they see it the first time. Thedestination node receives the RREQ packets alongseveral paths, chooses the best route according to theroute selection principles of the particular routing protocol and notifies the source node about theselected route using a Route-Reply (RREP) packet.Flooding is a very expensive process with respectto the bandwidth and energy usage. With resource-constrained environments like those of MANETs,employing flooding for on-demand route discoverywill be very costly. Flooding also introduces lot of redundancy in the packet retransmission process. In[1], it has been observed that with flooding, when anode receives a packet for the first time, at least 39%of the node’s neighborhood would have also receivedthe message simultaneously and on average only41% of additional area could be covered with arebroadcast. In general, when a node rebroadcasts amessage after hearing it
times, the expectedadditional coverage decreases exponentially withincreasing values of 
[1]. These observationsmotivated researchers to introduce several efficient
 
 
 broadcasting strategies that will minimize thenumber of redundant retransmissions and at the sametime maximize the chances of the broadcastedmessage reaching all the nodes in the network.The techniques for efficient broadcasting can begrouped into three families [1][2]: probability-basedmethods, area-based methods and the neighbor knowledge-based methods. In probability-basedmethods, each node is assigned a probability for retransmission. In area-based methods, a commontransmission range is assumed and a node willrebroadcast if only sufficient new area can becovered with the retransmission. In neighbor-knowledge based methods, each node storesneighborhood state information and uses it to decidewhether to retransmit or not. One or more broadcasting techniques have been proposed under each of the above three families. The objective of allthese broadcasting techniques is to minimize thenumber of retransmitted messages and the number of nodes retransmitting the message. More informationon the different broadcasting techniques can befound in Section 3.The performance of the different efficient broadcasting techniques under different conditions of topology changes and offered broadcast traffic has been studied in [2]. As the number of retransmittingnodes and the retransmitted messages get reducedwhen using these broadcasting techniques for RREQ propagation, the quality of the routes chosen may bedifferent compared to those routes discovered usingsimple flooding. This formed the motivation for us toimplement these broadcasting techniques and usethem for route discovery in on-demand MANETrouting protocols.On-demand MANET routing protocols can beclassified into two broad categories [7]: minimum-weight based routing protocols and stability-orientedrouting protocols. The Dynamic Source Routing(DSR) protocol [3] is a well-known minimum-weight based protocol that selects routes with theminimum hop count. The Flow-oriented RoutingProtocol (FORP) [4] was observed to discover themost stable routes within the class of stable pathrouting protocols [8]. The stability of routes selected by a routing protocol is quantified in terms of thenumber of route transitions incurred by the protocolfor a source-destination (
 s-d 
) session. Moreinformation on DSR and FORP is provided inSection 2.In this paper, we implement the probability- based method, the distance-based technique (area- based method), the Multi-Point Relaying (MPR) andthe Minimum Connected Dominating Set (MCDS) based techniques (neighbor-knowledge basedmethod) as the route discovery strategies for DSR and FORP and study the impact of these broadcasting techniques on the quality of routeschosen by the two routing protocols. We specificallystudy the impact on two principal routing metrics,viz., the stability and hop count. We compare thestability and hop count of DSR and FORP routeschosen with these broadcasting techniques with thosediscovered using flooding. Flooding helps todiscover the minimum hop routes for DSR and themost stable routes for FORP. But, these efficient broadcasting techniques may not yield the minimumhop routes for DSR or the most stable routes for FORP.The rest of the paper is organized as follows: InSection 2, we briefly discuss the DSR and FORP protocols. Section 3 discusses the different broadcasting techniques that have been published inthe literature. Section 4 describes the simulationenvironment, illustrates the results and interpretsthem. Section 5 concludes the paper. Note that weuse the words ‘route’ and ‘path’, ‘message’ and‘packet’, ‘rebroadcast’ and ‘retransmit’interchangeably in this paper.
2
 
REVIEW OF MANET ROUTINGPROTOCOLS
In this section, we briefly review the minimum-hop based Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol[3] and the stability-based Flow-Oriented RoutingProtocol (FORP) [4] – the two protocols we use for our simulation analysis.
2.1
 
Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
The unique feature of DSR [3] is source routing:data packets carry the route from the source to thedestination in the packet header. As a result,intermediate nodes do not need to store up-to-daterouting information. This avoids the need for beaconcontrol neighbor detection packets that are used inthe stability-oriented routing protocols. Routediscovery is by means of the broadcast query-replycycle. A source node
 s
wishing to send a data packetto a destination
, broadcasts a Route-Request(RREQ) packet throughout the network. The RREQ packet reaching a node contains the list of intermediate nodes through which it has propagatedfrom the source node. After receiving the first RREQ packet, the destination node waits for a short time period for any more RREQ packets and then choosesa path with the minimum hop count and sends aRoute-Reply Packet (RREP) along the selected path.If any RREQ is received along a path whose hopcount is lower than the one on which the RREP wassent, another RREP would be sent on the latestminimum hop path discovered.
2.2
 
Flow-Oriented Routing Protocol
FORP [4] utilizes the mobility and locationinformation of nodes to approximately predict the
 
 
Link Expiration Time (LET) for each wireless link.FORP selects the route with the maximum RouteExpiration Time (RET), which is the minimum of theLET values of the constituent links of the route. Eachnode periodically sends a beacon control message toits neighbors and the message includes the current position of the nodes, velocity, the direction of movement and the transmission ranges. Each node isassumed to be able to predict the LET values of eachof its links with the neighboring nodes based on theinformation collected using beacon packets. FORPassumes the availability of location identifyingtechniques like GPS (Global Positioning System) [9]and also assumes that the clocks across all nodes aresynchronized.Given the motion parameters of two neighboringnodes, the duration of time the two nodes will remainneighbors can be predicted as follows: Let two nodes
i
and
 j
 be within the transmission range of each other.Let (
 x
i
,
 y
i
) and (
 x
 j
,
 y
 j
) be the co-ordinates of themobile hosts
i
and
 j
respectively. Let
v
i
,
v
 j
 
 be thevelocities and
Θ
i
,
Θ
 j
, where (0
 
Θ
i
,
Θ
 j
 
< 2
π
) indicatethe direction of motion of nodes
i
and
 j
respectively.The amount of time the two nodes
i
and
 j
will stayconnected,
 D
i-j
, can be predicted as follows:
 Dab cd a c r ad bca c
i j
=+ + + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 22 2
 where,
a = v
i
cos
Θ
i
v
 j
cos
Θ
 j
;
b = x
i
 – x
 j
; c = v
i
sin
Θ
i
v
 j
 sin
Θ
 j
; d = y
i
– y
 j
Route discovery is accomplished using the broadcast query-reply cycle with RREQ packets propagating from the source node
 s
to the destinationnode
on several paths. The information recorded inthis case by a node
i
receiving a RREQ messagefrom a node
 j
is the predicted LET of the link 
i
-
 j
. Thedestination
will receive several RREQ messageswith the predicted LETs in the paths traversed beinglisted. The
 s-d 
path that has the maximum predictedRET is then selected. If more than one path has thesame maximum predicted RET, the tie is broken byselecting the minimum hop path of such paths.
3
 
REVIEW OF BRAODCASTINGSTRATEGIES
In general, the broadcasting strategies can begrouped into four families: Simple flooding,Probability-based methods, Area-based methods and Neighbor knowledge based methods.
3.1
 
Simple Flooding
A source node initiates flooding by broadcastinga packet to all its neighbors. The neighbor nodes inturn rebroadcast the packet exactly once and the process continues until each node in the network hasretransmitted the packet. As a result, all nodesreachable from the source receive the packet.Flooding causes the broadcast storm problem [1]which is characterized by redundant rebroadcasts,channel contention and collision of messages.
3.2
 
Probability-based Methods
3.2.1
Probabilistic Scheme
When a node receives a broadcast message for the first time, the node rebroadcasts the message witha probability
 P 
. If the message received is alreadyseen, then the node drops the message irrespective of whether or not the node retransmitted the messagewhen received for the first time. For sparse networks,the value of 
 P 
has to be high enough to facilitate ahigher packet delivery ratio. When
 P 
= 1, the schemeresorts to simple flooding.3.2.2
Counter-based Scheme
A broadcast message received for the first time isnot immediately retransmitted to the neighborhood.The message is queued up for a time called theRandom Assessment Delay (RAD) during which thenode may receive the same message (redundant broadcasts) from some of its other neighbors. After the RAD timer expires, if the number of times thesame message is received exceeds a counter threshold, the message is not retransmitted and issimply dropped.
3.3
 
Area-based Methods
3.3.1
Distance-based Scheme
When a node receives a previously unseen broadcast message, the node computes the distance between itself and the sender. If the sender is closer than a threshold distance, the message is dropped andall future receptions of the same message are alsodropped. Otherwise, the received message is cachedand the node initiates a RAD timer. Redundant broadcast messages received before the expiry of theRAD timer are also cached. When the RAD timer expires, the node computes the distance betweenitself and the neighbor nodes that previously broadcast the particular message. If any suchneighbor node is closer than a threshold distancevalue, the message is dropped. Otherwise, themessage is retransmitted.3.3.2
Location-based Scheme
Whenever a node originates or rebroadcasts amessage, the node puts its location information in themessage header. The receiver node calculates theadditional coverage area that would be obtainable if it were to rebroadcast. If the additional coverage isless than a threshold value, all future receptions of the same message will be dropped. Otherwise, the

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