to an organized teamwork system. This system ischaracterized by the interacting collective behaviorthrough labor division, distributed simultaneous task performance, specialized individuals, and self-organization.The exchange of information among bees leadsto the formation of a tuned collective knowledge. Acolony of honey bees consists of a queen, manydrones (males) and thousands of workers (non-reproductive females). The queen's job is to lay eggsand to start new colonies. The sole function of thedrones is to mate with the queen and during the fallthey are ejected from the colony. The worker beesbuild honeycomb, and the young, clean the colony,feed the queen and drones, guard the colony, andcollect food.As nectar is the bees' energy source, two kindsof worker bees are responsible for food. These arescout bees and forager bees. A bee does many thingsin its life history, and does not become a scout/work bee until late in its life .While scout bees carry out the explorationprocess of the search space, forager bees control theexploitation process. However, exploration andexploitation processes must be carried out togetherby the colony’s explorers and colony’s exploiters. Asthe increase in the number of scouts encourages theexploration process, the increase of foragersencourages the exploitation process.Studying the foraging behavior leads to optimalforaging theory that directs activities towardsachieving goals . This theory states that organismsforage in such a way as to maximize their intakeenergy per unit time . In other words, the swarmof bees behaves in such a way as to find and capturethe food that containing the most energy whileexpending the least possible amount of time in realvariables. There are two forms of scenarios for anybee in forging process which are either scout orforager. The following subsections present these twoscenarios:
The Behavior of Scout Scenario
Scouts fly around and search for food. Whenthey find a source of nectar or pollen fly back to thecolony and start dancing to communicate with otherbees on a particular region in the comb. Fig. 1presents the decoding of the language of the Beedance .Hence the behavior of the scout scenario issummarized according to the following activities:
The scout flies from its colony searching for foodsources in a random way.
it finishes a full trip, it returns back to itscolony.
When a scout arrives at the colony, it goes insideand announces its presence by the wing vibrations.This means that it has a message to communicate.
If it has found a nearby source of nectar or pollen,it undergoes a circular dance. The nearby beesfollow it through this circular dance and smell itfor the identity of the flowers. They listen to theintensity of the wing vibrations to indicate thevalue of the food source.
If the source is so close, no directions are given.Alternatively, if the flower source is a long waysoff, careful directions must be given.
The abstract convention that the scout makes isthat the up position on the comb is the position of the sun. Because bees can see polarized light, they
can tell sun position without actually seeing thesun. The scout dances in a precise angle from thevertical. This equals to the horizontal angle of thesun with reference to the colony exit with thelocation of the food source.
Next the scout bee must tell the other bees how faraway the flower source is. This is done bywaggling the abdomen from side to side. Theslower the waggling, the further away is thedistance of the food flower.
Decoding the language of the Bee danceThus the dance of scouts points to the direction,distance, and quality of food source. What VonFrisch notes is that the various groups of scoutingbees compete with each other and that therefore thedecision is finally made in favor of the best domicile.
The Behavior of Forger Scenario
The reaction of the forager bees on this showconcludes into steps:
The bees in the colony closely follow the scout tolearn these directions, and also learn the odor of the flower on scout bee, so they can find the flowerwhen they arrive at the source location.
Because the sun is moving in the sky, the beesshould use an accurate clock sense to adjust for the