legal owners of a copy and TCPA identifies the hostcomputer and operating system.A fundamental drawback of these schemes howeveris that these unique parts are not part of originalprogram instead they were added for the purpose of copyright protection. We believe that this is one of the reasons why they have been proven to berelatively easily removed or circumvented.
2.3 Software distribution model:
This paper presents a software distribution modelwhose components are:
Software providers: who want to maximizetheir profits now and in the future.
Legitimate users: who are willing to pay for thesoftware and want to use it without beingimpaired by the piracy prevention mechanism.
Pirates: who have technical skills and the desireto circumvent the piracy prevention mechanismand want to minimize the risk of being caught.
Illegitimate users: who have no technical skillsand want to enjoy the same privileges aslegitimate users without proper compensation.We will assume that number of pirates islimited. 
2.4 Electronic software distribution (ESD):
The cost of shipping of some software was very highwhich was also to be paid by the customer. Thisinspired the customer towards piracy. In order tosolve this problem a technique called ESD came intoexistence ESD is also known as digital distribution orelectronic software delivery. It refers to the practiceof allowing users to download software productselectronically (and primarily over the internet) asopposed to receiving physical media. Although notall software vendors discount the prices of electronically distributed software from the price of the physically distributed versions, such a discount iscommon, as electronic distribution can typically bemuch less costly for the vendors than itsconventional counterpart.ESD as a service can be further broken down basedon straight purchase of the software (above) and try –before – you – buy (TBYB), TBYB allows theconsumer to try the product for limited time or withlimited features and then, through the softwareinterface, purchase the software from the publisher.
ESD services are broken down into severalcomponents including Digital RightsManagements (DRM), Trial Management and thetransaction or E-commerce component. Each of the services can be purchased and managed asstandalone components or they can be outsourcedthrough third party companies.
Electronic software distribution andLicensing (ESDL): ESDL is the combination of electronic software distribution and electronicsoftware licensing. 
3. Distributed software and License keymanagement:
Distributing files over network has been considered agreat achievement in the development of computertechnologies. Message distribution has been the coretechnique behind the success and popularity gainedby Distributed Systems.A distributed system can be defined as the one inwhich components located at networked computerscommunicate and coordinate their actions by passingmessages. This definition of distributed systemsleads to the following characteristics of distributedsystems as-concurrency of components, lack of global clock and independent failures of components.The distribution of files or information over thenetwork faces a lot of problems to achieve betterefficiency in distributed systems. The messagedelivery should be fast and number of messagesshould be less to achieve efficiency in distributedsystems. The transfer of message should be fast andfor this UDP messages are preferred.
In this model an organization tries to keep theinformation about the specified software on a singlemachine (considered as coordinator) and thecomplete management of the dynamic distribution of that software and its license is to be done on thesame machine. The selection of the coordinator isdone arbitrary or by executing the electionalgorithms. If in any case the coordinator goes downthan any other machine is voluntary elected as thecoordinator to provide uninterrupted functioning fordynamic or electronic distribution of the softwarelicense. Here the software and license keymanagement is done dynamically by the coordinatormachine. The coordinator machine is responsible tomake an account for all those machines which areexecuting the software. In this methodology theorganization cannot use the software on the numberof computers, exceeding the number of licensepurchased but this methodology provides an ethicalway for optimal uses of the software in the network of an organization. Therefore it preventsorganizational piracy and supports optimal use of software in the network of an organization, forexample if there are 500 users in a network andsoftware is used by at most 300 users at a time then itis better to take 300 licenses and use it with theprevention of piracy.In this scheme a machine known ascoordinator is dedicated for dynamic software andlicense management. Generally the coordinatormachine is that machine which executes the softwarefirst of all in the network. When this machine first of
Special Issue of Ubiquitous Computing Security Systems
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