commentaries on the Organon by Averroes, founder of Averroism. In turn,the Aristotelian tradition was later displaced by Avicennian logic, which inturn was succeeded by post-Avicennian logic.Important developments made by Islamic logicians included thedevelopment of original systems of logic, notably Avicennian and post-Avicennian logic, and the development of early theories on temporal logic,modal logic, inductive logic, hypothetical syllogism, propositional calculus,analogical reasoning, and legal logic. Other important developments inearly Islamic philosophy include the development of a strict science of citation, the isnad or "backing", and the development of a scientific methodof open inquiry to disprove claims, the ijtihad, which could be generallyapplied to many types of questions.
Logic in Islamic law and theology
Early forms of analogical reasoning, inductive reasoning and categoricalsyllogism were introduced in Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), Sharia (Islamiclaw) and Kalam (Islamic theology) from the 7th century with the process of Qiyas, at least
a century before Muslims had become aware of Aristotelian logic. The Qiyas process was described by earlyIslamic legal scholars such as Abū Ḥanīfa (699–765) andMuhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (767–820). Later during theIslamic Golden Age, there was a log
ical debate among Islamicphilosophers, logicians and theologians over whether the term Qiyas refersto analogical reasoning, inductive reasoning or disagreed with, arguing thatQiyas does not refer to inductive reasoning, but refers to categoricalsyllogism in a real sense and analogical categorical syllogism. SomeIslamic scholars argued that Qiyas refers to inductive reasoning, which IbnHazm (994–1064) reasoning in a metaphorical sense. On the other hand,al-Ghazali (1058–1111) (and in modern times, Abu Muhammad Asem al-Maqdisi) argued that Qiyas refers to analogical reasoning in a real senseand categorical syllogism in a metaphorical sense. Other Islamic scholarsat the time, however, argued that the term Qiyas refers to both analogicalreasoning and categorical syllogism in a real sense.Ibn Hazm (994–1064) wrote the Scope of Logic, in which he stressed onthe importance of sense perception as a source of knowledge. He wrotethat the "first sources of all human knowledge are the soundly used sensesand the intuitions of reason, combined with a correct understanding of alanguage." He also criticized some of the more traditionalist theologianswho were opposed to the use of logic and argued that the first generationsof Muslims did not rely on logic. His response was that the early Muslimshad witnessed the revelation directly, whereas the Muslims of his timehave been exposed to contrasting beliefs, hence the use of logic isnecessary in order to preserve the true teachings of Islam. Ibn Hazm'sFisal (Detailed Critical Examination) also stressed the importance of senseperception as he realized that human reason can be flawed, and thuscriticized some of the more rationalist theologians who placed too muchemphasis on reason. While he recognized the importance of reason, sincethe Qur'an itself invites reflection, he argued that this reflection refersmainly to sense data, since the principles of reason are themselves derivedentirely from sense experience. He concludes that reason is not a facultyfor independent research or discovery, but that that sense perceptionshould be used in its place, an idea which forms the basis of empiricism.Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) had an important influence on the use of logic in