Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Role of Logic

Role of Logic

Ratings: (0)|Views: 6|Likes:
Published by Abrar Ahmed Qazi
logic and critical thinking
logic and critical thinking

More info:

Published by: Abrar Ahmed Qazi on Apr 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less


Logic is the study of the principles and methods of reasoning. It explores howwe distinguish between good (or sound) reasoning and bad (or unsound)reasoning. The study of logic is likely to improve the quality of one'sreasoning for another reason. It gives one the opportunity to practice theanalysis of arguments and the construction of arguments of one's own.Reasoning is something we do as well as understand; it therefore is an art aswell as a science, with skills to be developed and techniques to be mastered.There are affairs in human life that cannot be fully analyzed by the methodsof logic, and issues that cannot be resolved by arguments, even good ones.The appeal to emotion sometimes is more persuasive than logical argument,and in some contexts it may be more appropriate as well. But where judgements that must be relied upon are to be made, correct reasoning will inthe long run prove to be their most solid foundation. with the methods andtechniques of logic we can distiguish efficiently between correct and incorrectreasoning.An instance of reasoning is called an argument or an inference. An argumentconsists of a set of statements called premises together with a statementcalled the conclusion, which is supposed to be supported by or derived fromthe premises. A good argument provides support for its conclusion, and abad argument does not. Two basic types of reasoning are called deductiveand inductive.A good deductive argument is said to be valid--that is, the conclusionnecessarily follows from the premises. A deductive argument whoseconclusion does not follow necessarily from the premises is said to beinvalid. The argument "All human beings are mortal, all Greeks are humanbeings, therefore all Greeks are mortal" is a valid deductive argument. Butthe argument "All human beings are mortal, all Greeks are mortal,therefore all Greeks are human beings" is invalid, even though theconclusion is true. On that line of reasoning, one could argue that all dogs,which are also mortal, are human beings.Deductive reasoning is used to explore the necessary consequences of certain assumptions. Inductive reasoning is used to establish matters of fact and the laws of nature and does not aim at being deductively valid.One who reasons that all squirrels like nuts, on the basis that all squirrelsso far observed like nuts, is reasoning inductively. The conclusion could befalse, even though the premise is true. Nevertheless, the premise providesconsiderable support for the conclusion.
Logic (Arabic: قطنم) played an important role in Islamic philosophy. Islamiclaw and jurisprudence placed importance on formulating standards of argument, which gave rise to a novel approach to logic in Kalam, as seenin the method of qiyas. This approach, however, was later displaced tosome extent by ideas from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophy withthe rise of the Mu'tazili school, who highly valued Aristotle's Organon. Theworks of Hellenistic-influenced Islamic philosophers were crucial in thereception of Aristotelian logic in medieval Europe, along with the
commentaries on the Organon by Averroes, founder of Averroism. In turn,the Aristotelian tradition was later displaced by Avicennian logic, which inturn was succeeded by post-Avicennian logic.Important developments made by Islamic logicians included thedevelopment of original systems of logic, notably Avicennian and post-Avicennian logic, and the development of early theories on temporal logic,modal logic, inductive logic, hypothetical syllogism, propositional calculus,analogical reasoning, and legal logic. Other important developments inearly Islamic philosophy include the development of a strict science of citation, the isnad or "backing", and the development of a scientific methodof open inquiry to disprove claims, the ijtihad, which could be generallyapplied to many types of questions.
Logic in Islamic law and theology
Early forms of analogical reasoning, inductive reasoning and categoricalsyllogism were introduced in Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), Sharia (Islamiclaw) and Kalam (Islamic theology) from the 7th century with the process of Qiyas, at least
a century before Muslims had become aware of Aristotelian logic. The Qiyas process was described by earlyIslamic legal scholars such as Abū Ḥafa (699–765) andMuhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (767–820). Later during theIslamic Golden Age, there was a log
ical debate among Islamicphilosophers, logicians and theologians over whether the term Qiyas refersto analogical reasoning, inductive reasoning or disagreed with, arguing thatQiyas does not refer to inductive reasoning, but refers to categoricalsyllogism in a real sense and analogical categorical syllogism. SomeIslamic scholars argued that Qiyas refers to inductive reasoning, which IbnHazm (994–1064) reasoning in a metaphorical sense. On the other hand,al-Ghazali (1058–1111) (and in modern times, Abu Muhammad Asem al-Maqdisi) argued that Qiyas refers to analogical reasoning in a real senseand categorical syllogism in a metaphorical sense. Other Islamic scholarsat the time, however, argued that the term Qiyas refers to both analogicalreasoning and categorical syllogism in a real sense.Ibn Hazm (994–1064) wrote the Scope of Logic, in which he stressed onthe importance of sense perception as a source of knowledge. He wrotethat the "first sources of all human knowledge are the soundly used sensesand the intuitions of reason, combined with a correct understanding of alanguage." He also criticized some of the more traditionalist theologianswho were opposed to the use of logic and argued that the first generationsof Muslims did not rely on logic. His response was that the early Muslimshad witnessed the revelation directly, whereas the Muslims of his timehave been exposed to contrasting beliefs, hence the use of logic isnecessary in order to preserve the true teachings of Islam. Ibn Hazm'sFisal (Detailed Critical Examination) also stressed the importance of senseperception as he realized that human reason can be flawed, and thuscriticized some of the more rationalist theologians who placed too muchemphasis on reason. While he recognized the importance of reason, sincethe Qur'an itself invites reflection, he argued that this reflection refersmainly to sense data, since the principles of reason are themselves derivedentirely from sense experience. He concludes that reason is not a facultyfor independent research or discovery, but that that sense perceptionshould be used in its place, an idea which forms the basis of empiricism.Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) had an important influence on the use of logic in
theology, as he was the first to apply the Avicennian system of temporalmodal logic to Islamic theology. He also established the application of threetypes of logical systems in Islamic Sharia law: reasoning by analogy,deductive logic, and inductive logic. In cases that have multiple legalprecedents, he recommended the use of inductive logic, stating that the"larger the number of pieces of textual evidence is, the stronger our knowledge becomes." His followers, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) andIbn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), also applied inductive logic to Islamic Sharialaw. Ibn Taymiyyah in particular argued against the certainty of syllogisticarguments and in favour of analogy.Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288) wrote two major works dealing with logic inIslamic theology. Theologus Autodidactus was a fictional story dealing withmany Islamic topics. Through its story, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to establishthat the human mind is capable of deducing the natural, philosophical andreligious truths of Islam through logical thinking. In A Short Account of the
Methodology of Hadith, he demonstrated the use of logic in theclassification of the hadiths into four categories: decidedly true(maclūm al-sidq), probably true (yuz annu bihi'l-sidq), probablyfalse (yuz annu bihi'l-kadhb) and decidedly false (maclūm al-
Logic is called the science of sciences because its help is required in everyscience. The aim of every science in its own sphere is to attain validthought, and this aim can be achieved only by an application of theprinciples of logic. Hence every science depends on logic. The validity of the methods and conclusions of every science ultimately rests on logicalprinciples.Logic is thus the most general of all sciences. Its importance among thesciences can be seen from the fact that the very name occurs as part of nearly all the names adopted for the sciences, e.g., Geology, Biology,Physiology, Psychology, Theology, Minerology; (logy=logic). This showsthat logic, in a sense, enters into all sciences come under it.The place of Logic among the sciences can be shown in the followingtabular form:Logic!Mathematics!Physics!Chemistry!Geology!Biology {Botany{Zoology!Psychology!Sociology

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->