Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
6Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Leshtakov Aegeum-01

Leshtakov Aegeum-01

Ratings: (0)|Views: 180|Likes:
Published by sabretech2001

More info:

Published by: sabretech2001 on Apr 26, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/26/2014

pdf

text

original

 
AEGAEUM27
Annalesd'archeologieegeennedeI'UniversitedeLiegeetUT-PASP
BETWEENTHEAEGEANANDBALTICSEAS
PREHISTORYACROSSBORDERS
ProceedingsoftheInternationalConferenceBronzeandEarlyIronAgeInterconnectionsandContemporaryDevelopmentsbetweentheAegeanandtheRegionsoftheBalkanPeninsula,CentralandNorthernEuropeUniversityofZagreb,11-14April2005
EditedbyIoannaGALANAKI,HelenaTOMAS,YannisGALANAKISandRobertLAFFINEURUniversitedeLiegeHistoiredel'artetarcheologiedelaCreceantiqueUniversityofTexasatAustinPrograminAegeanScriptsandPrehistory
2007
 
THEEASTERNBALKANSINTHEAEGEANECONOMICSYSTEMDURINGTHELBA.OX-HIDEANDBUNINGOTSINBULGARIANLANDS
ThesubjectofthisarticleistheeconomicsituationintheeasternpartsoftheBalkanPeninsulasouthoftheDanubeandnorthoftheStraits,inrelationtocopperproductionanddistribution.Thediscussionisfocusedoncopper-basedingots-themaininstrumentofmetaltradeintheMediterraneanintheLateBronzeAge(LBA).SomeoftheintactandfragmentarycopperingotsfoundontheBulgarianBlackSealittoralarestillunknowntothewiderarchaeologicalaudience.Couldtheirexistencechangethetraditionalopinionontheregionasaperipheryorevenasa'marginalzone'comparedwiththecore.'-theEastMediterraneanLBAcivilisations?TherealinvestigationsoftheLBAsocietiesinsoutheastBulgaria,EasternThraceandDobrudghaareinaninitialstage.NorthoftheStraitsandTroyalmostallofthestudiesconcernchronology,thetypologyofthepotteryandfinds,orsomequestionsofsmall-scaleculturalinteractionswithneighbouringlands.Inthesphereofmetallurgy,afewpositiveadvanceshavebeenmade,aftertheleadingworksofN.Sandal's,E.Chernih,
I.
PanayotovandB.Hanselappearedthirtyandmoreyearsago.WhenwelookatoneofthelatestreviewsoftheLBAproblems.sitbecomesclearhowmuchworkstillneedstobedone,particularlyifwewanttoraisetheregionalcasestudiestothelevelofEastMediterraneanarchaeology.InthesphereofculturalcontactsitshouldbepointedoutthatoneofthebiggestdelusionshasbeentoseekfortrueMycenaeanimportsandparallels,wheresouth-eastinteractionswerealwayspreferableandhencepredominant.FromtheearliestperiodsoftheBronzeAge,theseregionshadaquitedifferentculturalaffiliationanddirectionofcontactsthantheCentralBalkans.Suchanopinioniseasilytenable,onthebasisofconcretematerialevidencefromthetimeofTroyI-EBA2(stageMichalich)onwards.Thisstatementisalsovalidinthecaseofmetalproduction.AfterthefirstnourishingperiodofmetallurgyintheBalkansduringtheLateChalcolithic,theLBAisthesecondremarkableperiod,butthesourcesofmetal,orientationoftechnologicalcontactsandtheentiremechanismofdevelopmentarequitedifferent.Asabroadgeneralisation,theroleofmetallurgyintheLBAwasofcriticalimportance
to
theexistenceofEastMediterraneansocio-systemsandproducedahighlevelofcommunicationbetweenthesmallsocieties,preventingtheirisolation.Ithasbeenstatedthatthe
141h
and13
1h
c.BCAegeansmiths-ca.
400
innumberonlyatPylos-obtainedfromoverseasthetonsofcoppertheyrequiredforthemanufactureoftools,armour,vessels,etc.OnCrete,"".ascanbeseenfromthesurvivingbronzesfromsitessuchasKnossos,Zakros,TylissosandtheArkalochoriCave,itwasdefinitelyalarge-scaleindustrythatproducedbronzeartifactsinnumbershithertounknownintheAegeanworld.t"Asweknowfromvarioussources,thebulkofthecoppertradewasbasedonthetransportationofrawmetalintheformofingots,differentintypeandshape.TheUluBuruncargoconsistsofmorethan11tonsofmetal,ca.10tonsofcopperingotsandaboutatonoftiningots.
4
OnthistheoreticalapproachseeA.SHERR.ATT,"Core,PeripheryandMargin:PerspectivesontheBronzeAge,"in
C
MATHERSandS.STODDART(eds),
DeoclopmeruandDeclineintheMediterraneanBronzeAge(SheffieldArchaeologicalMonographs
8,1994)337withref.2
J.
LICHARDUS,R.ECHT,I.K.ILIEV,Ch.J.CHRISTOV,lS.BECKERandW.-R.THIELE,"DieSpaibronzezeitanderunterenTundzaunddieost~igaischenVerbindungeninSudostbulgaricn,"
Eurasia/vntiqua
8(2002)J35-137.')C.YBASS,"ProlegomenatoastudyofmaritimetrafficinrawmaterialstotheAegeanduringthefourteenthandthirteenthcenturies11.c.,"in
R.
I.AFFINEURandP.BETANCOURT(eds),
TEXNH.Crajtsmen;CrajtsioomenandCraft.sm.anshipin
the
AegmnBronzeAge.Proceedinglojthe
6'h
InternationalAegeanConference,Philadelphia,Temple
Unioersit»
18-21
A/nil
1996
(Aegae'Uln
Hi,1997)154andnote14;J.D.MUHLY,
R.
MADDINand
T.
STECH,"Cyprus,CreteandSardinia:CopperOx-hideIngotsandtheBronzeAgeMetalsTrade,"
Rj)AC
(1988)281.-lC.PULAK"TheCopperandTiningotsIrorntheLateBronzeAgeShipwreckatUluburun,"inU.YAU;;:IN(ed.),
Anatolianmetal
1.
DerAnsclmitt
(2000)137,140:354ox-hidecopperingots.
 
448
Krassirnir
LESHTAKOV
Ontheotherhand,"theuseofbronzeclearlylinkedcontemporaryandcontiguouscultureswithcontrastingscaleofsocialandeconomicorganisation.SimilartypeofbronzetoolsandweaponswereusedbysecondmillenniumsocietiesintheNearEastandtemperateEurope.">Thisstatementgivesrisetotwogeneralquestions.First,whatkindofexchangeofinformationconcerningtechnologicalinnovationsexistedinthesecondmillenniumBe?Andsecond,isitcorrecttoassumetheexistenceofsimilareconomicsystemsinsocietiesbasedupondifferentculturalmodelsandorganisationoflife,withoutusingtheterm'marginalisation'?Anadditionalthirdquestioncouldalsobeasked,whichisclearlyeconomicinnature,butreflectstheentiresocietyandconcernsthecopper-supplyingzonesandplacesofconsumption.
If
coppersourcesbeyondtheAegeanweremadeuseof,thenthemostpersuasiveideawouldbethetraditional'colonialrnodel"inwhicha'barbarian'peripherysuppliesmetropoleiswiththerawmetalneeded,orasitwaswrittenbyAndrewSherratt,"SyriansandMycenaeans....promotingmetallurgyinthesearchforhigh-valuerawmaterialandleavingfaiencebeadsforthenatives.
"b
Themodelseemstoberathersimplisticnow,andobviouslyitcouldnotembraceallrangeofinteractionvariantsinthesameway.Thisarticleisahumbleattempttodenyit.According
to
thetraditionalpointofview,theAegeaninterestinourlands(andtheregionofmodern-dayNorthernGreece)isratherlate-sincethefoundingoftheGreek
anoucloi
isdatedinthe
7'h
c.
Be.ItispossibletoassumethatalltheselandswereknownbytheendofthesecondmillenniumBe,butwereneverasubjectofdirecteconomicintervention,andnosettlersofanykindestablishedsettlementsinThrace,forinstance.Therearesomeimports,whichhavebeeninterpretedasisolatedinstances,inaregionalorchronologicalsense,soonlyevidenceforoccasionalinteractionratherthanregulareconomiccontacts.Recently,therehavebeensomeattempts
to
changethishypotheticalpicture,moreorless
successfully."
However,anyundisputedevidenceforsteadyeconomiccontactsdatesafterthe15
h-
14'h
c.
Be.Weconsiderthecopper-basedingotsasevidenceofthesecontacts.TheevidencefromBulgariaisthefollowing:
I.
Ox-hideingots(PI.
CIXa)Morethanthirtyyearsago,the'ingot'fromKaliakracapeswasdiscoveredunderwater.Inshape,itresemblestheox-hideingot
9
butitisquiteunusualintermsofdimensions,weightandmetalcomposition,containingaveryhighpercentageofgold.
It
differsfromallknownexamplesintheEastMediterraneanandcouldberegardedasaluxuryitem.Nevertheless,evennowsomeauthorsstillbelievethatthisisatrueingot,IOwhileothersarguethat"...itsdescriptionasanox-hideingotisapureinventiononthepartoftheexcavator."
11
Ontheotherhand,nothingcouldbesaidontheprovenanceandthedateoftheartefactandthe'stoneanchor'thatwasfoundnearbyisoflittlehelpinthisdirection.
:1
SHERRXrT
(SUpl({
n.1)335.6
Ibid.
33b.7Fortheendofthe
3"d
millenniumBCseeD.MATSAS,"Minoanlong-distancetrade:
a
viewfromtheNorthernAegean,"inR.LAFFINEURandW.-D.NIEMEIER(eds),
POLITEIA.SocietyandStateintheAegeanBronzeAge.
Pm("(wiingsoft
5"'
lntrrnaiional
AegeanConference,
Unioersii»
of
Heidelberg,/vrcluiologischesInstitui,10-13
AjJril
1994,Vol!.
(Af'gaewl/.
12,1995)235-247;K.LESHTAKOV,"Tradecentres[romtheEarlyBronzeAge1lIandMiddleBronzeAgeinUpperThrace,"in
L.
NIKOLOVA(eel.),
EarlyBronzef1geSettlementPatternsintheBallwns(ca.3500-20()O
nc,
tReptntsojPrehistoricResearchProjerts
3/2,1997)239-287;M.OZDOCAN"AuadoluclanAvrupayaacilankapi:TrakyaGerccklesencalisrnalarvebeklentilcr,"
Arkeolojivesanat90
(1999)2-29.TheoldhypothesissuggestingAegeanlackofinterestinthenorthernBalkanscaneasilybecriticisedonthebasisofnewevidence,butthisisbeyondmypresentscope.8C.TONCHEVA,"Novidannizatargoviyatapochernomorskorokraybrezieprez16-14v.pr.n.e.,"
Vekoo«
2(1973)17-22,fig.
I
a-b.
9
TONCHEV
A
tsiqnn
n.
8)
20.ShebelievesthatthispieceisclosertotheorthogonalshapeofgoldingotsusedinEgypt.Hence,according
to
her,theKaliakraCapeingotshouldbeassociatedwithEgypt..
It
couldhavereachedtheBlackSeacoastonboardaCretanship.Thegoldweighs50Egyptjan
kits
(9.26
g.)-
i.e.thefactthatthe
value
appearstohavebeenmeasuredbyEgyptianstandardsisusedasanadditionalargumentfortheprov-enanceofthisingot.10O.HOCK1VIANN,"ZLIfruherScefahrtindenMeerengen,"
StudiaTroiw
13(2003)143;Chr.SCHUSTER,"ZudenOhscnhautbaren
(?)
inRumanien,"
Stiulii
dePrehitorie
2(2005)191-20l.11
J.
DEBOER,
''_L\
BronzeAge'Metal-road'toEasternThracc>,"
Ancient
Wpst
and
East
1/2(2002)444.

Activity (6)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
jkfkfwcw liked this
jkfkfwcw liked this
Paddy Altern liked this
sorin172 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->