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Review Aegean Prehistory N.greece AJA-96

Review Aegean Prehistory N.greece AJA-96

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Review of Aegean Prehistory V: The Neolithic and Bronze Age of Northern GreeceAuthor(s): Stelios Andreou, Michael Fotiadis, Kostas KotsakisSource:
American Journal of Archaeology,
Vol. 100, No. 3 (Jul., 1996), pp. 537-597Published by: Archaeological Institute of AmericaStable URL:
Accessed: 13/11/2008 13:01
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ReviewofAegeanPrehistoryV:TheNeolithicandBronzeAgeofNorthernGreece
STELIOSANDREOU,MICHAELFOTIADIS,AND KOSTASKOTSAKIS
INTRODUCTIONIn thisarticle we summarizethe stateofresearchonthe NeolithicandBronzeAgein theGreekprov-inces ofThessaly,Macedonia, Thrace,andEpirus**Thisreview wouldhave beenimpossiblewithout thehelpofmanycolleaguesandfriends,whogaveus sitetours,suppliedus withoffprintsandmanuscriptsoftheirproj-ectreports,andgenerouslyrespondedto ourqueries:V.Adrimi-Sismani,A.Batziou-Efstathiou,M.Besios,A.Cambitoglou,E.Christmann,P.Chrysostomou,J.L.Davis,A.Douzougli,N.Efstratiou,D.V.Grammenos,B.Hansel,A.Hondroyanni,G.Karametrou,S.Kotsos,H.Koukouli-Chrysanthaki,Z.Malakasioti,D.Malamidou,S.Morris,J.Papadopoulos,S.Papadopoulos,A.Papanthimou,A.Pap-asteriou,M.Pappa,E.Poulaki,V.Rondiri,C.N.Runnels,M.Savina,T.ETartaron,G.Toufexis,R.Treuil,K.andD.Wardle,N.Wilkie,C.L.Zachos,andH.Ziota.T.Cullen,D.V.Grammenos,P.Halstead,G.H.Hourmouziadis,A. Kalo-girou,andK.D.Vitelliprovidedincisivecomments onlargesections ofthemanuscript.A.VargasandM.Magafahelpeddesignthemapsand,togetherwith P.Skoufis,ensuredcom-municationbetweencontinents.Werepeatedlyandextensivelydiscussedamongour-selvesmost oftheissueswetreat.Theclosestcollabora-tionhasbeenbetweenAndreouandKotsakis,whowrotethesections onThessaly,centralandeasternMacedonia,andThrace,withKotsakiswritingprimarilyaboutthe Neo-lithic,andAndreouabouttheBronzeAge.Thenote onthehistoryofresearch inMacedonia,thesections onwest-ernMacedoniaandEpirus,andtheshortconcludingnoteontheearliestNeolithicwerewrittenbyFotiadis.Thefollowingabbreviationsareused inthisreview:AchilleionM.Gimbutas,S.Winn,andD.Shima-buku,Achilleion:ANeolithicSettlementinThessaly,Greece,400-5600B.C.(LosAngeles1989).AEMTToApXaloXoylKoEpyoartjMaKEcoviaKaiOppdKljThessaloniki).AncientThessaly
AlEOvE,
ZvvgSpioyiarTlvApafiaOea-caaiaaoriMvTjil7TroA.P.Oeoxdpir(Athens1992).ArchMakApXaiaMaKeSovia (InternationalSym-posia,Thessaloniki).ArgissaIIIE.HanschmannandV.Milojcic,DiedeutschenAusgrabungenaufderArgissa-MagulainThessalienIII:DiefriheundbeginnendemittlereBronzezeit(BAM13,Bonn1976).AtlasCJ.Gallis,Arx,a;
Twv
7rpoiaroplKcbvOcoEwCVrT7avaro`lKti;Oecaaariag(Larisa1992).
Emphasizingfieldprojectsundertakeninthelasttwodecades,wereview themainconclusions ofthoseprojects,andoutlinemanynewquestionsthatariseasaresult oftherecentresearch.
BAMBeitrdgezur ur-undfriihgeschichtlichenArchdologieesMittelmeer-Kulturraumes.ColemanJ.E. Coleman,"Greece,theAegeanandCyprus,"inR.W.Ehriched.,Chronol-ogiesinOldWorldArchaeology3(Chi-cago1992)247-79.DiminiG.H.
Hourmouziadis,
ToVEoXIOIKOi-tirvi (Volos1979).EgnatiaEyvaria.Enrlar77oviKrEsrerlrpiSal/qOi-,oao(opKr'KXXoAtO.TEOsXOyi4parogIoropiacKaiApXaiokoyiaS(Thessa-loniki).FeuerB.Feuer,TheNorthernMycenaeanBorderinThessalyBAR-IS176,Oxford1983).GazetteerR.HopeSimpsonandO.T.P.K.Dickin-son,AGazetteerofAegeanCivilisationintheBronzeAge1:TheMainlandandIslands(SIMA52,Goteborg1979).GrammenosD.V.Grammenos,
NEOAIOlKd(gpEuVESarTlvKEVTrpIKIKalavaroilK:MaKe-
Sovia(LibraryoftheAthensArchae-ologicalSociety117,Athens1991).Halstead1984P.Halstead,StrategiesforSurvival:AnEco-logicalApproachtoSocial andEconomicChangentheEarlyFarmingCommunitiesofThessaly,N.Greece(Diss.Univ.ofCambridge1984).Halstead1989P.Halstead,"TheEconomyHas aNor-malSurplus:EconomicStabilityandSocialChangeamongEarlyFarmingCommunities ofThessaly,Greece,"inP.HalsteadandJ.O'Sheaeds.,BadYearEconomics:CulturalResponsestoRiskandUncertaintyCambridge1989)68-80.Halstead1994P.Halstead,"TheNorth-SouthDivide:RegionalPaths toComplexityinPre-historicGreece,"inC.MathersandS.Stoddarteds.,DevelopmentandDeclinein theMediterraneanBronzeAge(SheffieldArchaeologicalMono-graphs8,Sheffield1994)195-219.lolkosI.Kollioued.,
NEOrspaES6opEva
rovepevvcovyiaTr1VpXaiaICOAKO.pa-KrliKE7nTcrr#0ovlK4ivvdvrr7a1]712Mafov1993(Volos1994).KastanasB.Hansel,Kastanas:Ausgrabungennein-537AmericanJournalofArchaeology100(1996)537-97
 
STELIOSANDREOU,MICHAELFOTIADIS,AND KOSTASKOTSAKISTable 1.ArchaeologicalPhases andChronologyforNorthernGreece:Neolithic and BronzeAgeArchaeologicalPhasesYears B.C.CalendricalEarlyNeolithic6700/6500-5800/5600Middle Neolithic5800/5600-5400/5300LateNeolithic5400/5300-470014500
FinalNeolithic4700/4500-3300/3100
EarlyBronzeAge3300/3100-2300/2200(MiddleBronzeAge)Laer BronzeAge2300/2200-1700/1500Late BronzeAge
J
1700/1500-1100
Moderngeopolitical divisions--states,administra-tivedistricts,and the boundariesbetween them-
providea frameworkfororganizingourknowledgeandnarrative.Howeveralienthey maybe to the Neo-lithicand BronzeAge,suchdivisionscontinue toplaypowerfulandmultipleroles in theproductionofarchaeologicalknowledge;theyare devicesasmuch astheyare obstacles.'Ourwayofcopingwiththeirilleffectsis indirect.In thebodyof thereviewwe treateachmodernprovince(fIspqp;pecta)nturn,
beginningwithThessaly, continuingwithwestern,central,andeasternMacedoniaandThrace,and end-ingwithEpirus.Weresist,however,thetemptation
todevelop grandsynthesesof theprehistoryof eachprovince,or of northernGreeceas awhole. The efforttowritesuchsyntheseswouldentrapusinalaby-rinthofassumptionsand theoreticalpresuppositionsthatweare notpreparedtoaccept,and it woulden-tailleapsof faithand,ultimately,violenceto thearchaeologicalevidence.Wepreferinstead to beas
syntheticinourscopeand conclusionsas circum-stancesin eachprovinceallow. We cannot overstressemSiedlungshiugeler Bronze-undEisen-zeitMakedoniens,1975-1979: DieGra-bungund derBaubefund(Prahistor-ischeArchaologieinSudosteuropa
7,Berlin1989).
KotsakisK.Kotsakis,
KepapEiKj
rEXvo.oyia
KalKEpapJiKrj
61a(popo0rofi7q:Hpof3P4-para1r7gypa7rrqS K?papelIKtrrTlSMsa1iSNeollKT1SrXrovXjOoZSOKr;OV(Diss.Univ. of Thessaloniki1983).La ThessalieOEaaccia. AeKalrvreXp6vliaap%aio)o-
YIZKrOS
evtvaq,1975-1990.AnorAdg-aoara KalnrpoonrrlKg.HpaKrTiKAiEOvo6SEvve6piou,Avouv,17-22Anrplifov1990. LaThessalie.Quinzeanneesderecherchesarcheologiques,1975-1990. Bilans etperspectives.Actesducolloqueinternational,Lyon,17-22avril1990,vols.A-B(Athens1994).PefkakiaIH.-J.Weisshaar,Die deutschenAusgrabun-gen aufderPevkakia-MagulainThessa-lien I: DasspateNeolithikumund dasthe fact that ourconclusions,drawnuponthework
of hundredsofresearchers,areprovisional.Weexpect-infact,wehope-that theywill be chal-
lengedintheverynearfuture. That is all the morelikelyfor northern Greecetoday,sincemanyfield
projectsarecurrentlyinprogress,andtheyhave thusfar beenreportedonlyinpreliminaryfashion.We focus hereonquestionsofregionalsignifi-cance,and oninterregional comparisonsand com-parisonsbetweenarchaeological phases.Thestateofarchaeological knowledgeisunevenacrosstheregionswith which we areconcerned,withthere-sultthat we cannot bewhollyconsistentfrom oneregionto the nextin thequestionsweaddress,norcan weattempt interregional comparisonsinallcru-cialrespects.Ourstrategyisthereforeopportunis-tic: weexploittheparticularstrengthsof archaeo-logical knowledgeineachregion,andwepointoutthe weaknesses.
Wehaveadoptedthe broadestchronological
framework andterminology,andwe use calendricalrather than radiocarbondates(table1).2Even this
ChalkolithikumBAM28,Bonn1989).PefkakiaIIIJ.Maran,Die deutschenAusgrabungenaufderPevkakia-MagulainThessalien III:Die mittlereBronzezeit(BAM30,Bonn1992).
SitagroiC.Renfrew,M.Gimbutas,andE.S.Elster
eds.,Excavations atSitagroi:APrehis-toricVillageinNortheastGreece 1(LosAngeles1986).Itis smallconsolationthatpoliticalboundaries oftenfollowgeographicalones(e.g.,coasts,massivemountains,steepclimaticgradients).Geographicalboundaries,andtheregions theydefine,arenegotiable,andhave limitedauthorityoutsideparticularpoliticalfields.SeeM.Fotiadis,"RegionsoftheImagination:Archaeologists,LocalPeople,andtheArchaeologicalRecord inFieldwork,Greece,"JournalofEuropeanArchaeology:2(1993)154-56and161-62.2"B.C."nthisreviewalwaysindicatescalendricaldates,whetherobtainedbycalibration ofradiocarbonmeasure-ments orbyothermeans,includingestimation. We donotuse "b.c." r"B.P.,"xceptwhenquotinguncalibrated radio-carbonmeasurements aspublished.538
[AJA100

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