4 See also5 References6 External links6.1 Applications HistoryIn the past, when only partial power was needed (such as for asewing machine motor), a rheostat (located in the sewing machine's foot pedal)connected in series with the motor adjusted the amount of current flowingthrough the motor, but also wasted power as heat in the resistor element. It was an inefficient scheme, but tolerable because the total power was low. This wasone of several methods of controlling power. There were others—some still inuse—such as variable autotransformers, including the trademarked 'Autrastat' fortheatrical lighting; and the Variac, for general AC power adjustment. These were quite efficient, but also relatively costly.For about a century, some variable-speed electric motors have had decentefficiency, but they were somewhat more complex than constant-speed motors, andsometimes required bulky external electrical apparatus, such as a bank ofvariable power resistors or rotating converter such as Ward Leonard drive .However, in addition to motor drives for fans, pumps and robotic servos, therewas a great need for compact and low cost means for applying adjustable powerfor many devices, such as electric stoves and lamp dimmers.One of early applications of PWM was in the Sinclair X10, a 10 W audio amplifier available in kit form in the 1960s. At around the same time PWM started to beused in AC motor control  PrincipleFig. 1: a pulse wave, showing the definitions of ymin, ymax and D.Pulse-widthmodulation uses a rectangular pulse wave whose pulse width is modulatedresulting in the variation of the average value of the waveform. If we considera pulse waveform f(t) with a low value ymin, a high value ymax and a duty cycleD (see figure 1), the average value of the waveform is given by:As f(t) is a pulse wave, its value is ymax for and ymin for . The aboveexpression then becomes:This latter expression can be fairly simplified in many cases where ymin = 0 as. From this, it is obvious that the average value of the signal () is directlydependent on the duty cycle D. Fig. 2: A simple method to generate the PWM pulse train corresponding to a given signal is the intersective PWM: the signal (here the green sinewave) is compared with a sawtooth waveform (blue). When the latter is less than the former, thePWM signal (magenta) is in high state (1). Otherwise it is in the low state(0).The simplest way to generate a PWM signal is the intersective method, whichrequires only a sawtooth or a triangle waveform (easily generated using a simple oscillator) and a comparator. When the value of the reference signal (the greensine wave in figure 2) is more than the modulation waveform (blue), the PWMsignal (magenta) is in the high state, otherwise it is in the low state. DeltaMain article: Delta modulationIn the use of delta modulation for PWM control, the output signal is integrated, and the result is compared with limits, which correspond to a reference signaloffset by a constant. Every time the integral of the output signal reaches oneof the limits, the PWM signal changes state.