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Pulse-width modulation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPulse-widthmodulationFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchThis article includes a list of references, related reading or externallinks, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations whereappropriate. (April 2009) An example of PWM in an AC motor drive: the phase-to-phase voltage (blue) ismodulated as a series of pulses that results in a sine-like flux densitywaveform (red) in the magnetic circuit of the motor. The smoothness of theresultant waveform can be controlled by the width and number of modulatedimpulses (per given cycle)Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-durationmodulation (PDM), is a commonly used technique for controlling power to inertial electrical devices, made practical by modern electronic power switches.The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled byturning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast pace. The longer the switch is on compared to the off periods, the higher the power supplied tothe load is.The PWM switching frequency has to be much faster than what would affect theload, which is to say the device that uses the power. Typically switchings haveto be done several times a minute in an electric stove, 120 Hz in a lamp dimmer, from few kilohertz (kHz) to tens of kHz for a motor drive and well into the tens or hundreds of kHz in audio amplifiers and computer power supplies.The term duty cycle describes the proportion of 'on' time to the regularinterval or 'period' of time; a low duty cycle corresponds to low power, because the power is off for most of the time. Duty cycle is expressed in percent, 100%being fully on.The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching devices is verylow. When a switch is off there is practically no current, and when it is on,there is almost no voltage drop across the switch. Power loss, being the product of voltage and current, is thus in both cases close to zero. PWM also works well with digital controls, which, because of their on/off nature, can easily set the needed duty cycle.PWM has also been used in certain communication systems where its duty cycle has been used to convey information over a communications channel.Contents [hide]1 History2 Principle2.1 Delta2.2 Delta-sigma2.3 Space vector modulation2.4 Direct torque control (DTC)2.5 Time proportioning2.6 Types2.7 Spectrum3 Applications3.1 Telecommunications3.2 Power delivery3.3 Voltage regulation3.4 Audio effects and amplification
4 See also5 References6 External links6.1 Applications[edit] HistoryIn the past, when only partial power was needed (such as for asewing machine motor), a rheostat (located in the sewing machine's foot pedal)connected in series with the motor adjusted the amount of current flowingthrough the motor, but also wasted power as heat in the resistor element. It was an inefficient scheme, but tolerable because the total power was low. This wasone of several methods of controlling power. There were others—some still inuse—such as variable autotransformers, including the trademarked 'Autrastat' fortheatrical lighting; and the Variac, for general AC power adjustment. These were quite efficient, but also relatively costly.For about a century, some variable-speed electric motors have had decentefficiency, but they were somewhat more complex than constant-speed motors, andsometimes required bulky external electrical apparatus, such as a bank ofvariable power resistors or rotating converter such as Ward Leonard drive .However, in addition to motor drives for fans, pumps and robotic servos, therewas a great need for compact and low cost means for applying adjustable powerfor many devices, such as electric stoves and lamp dimmers.One of early applications of PWM was in the Sinclair X10, a 10 W audio amplifier available in kit form in the 1960s. At around the same time PWM started to beused in AC motor control [1][edit] PrincipleFig. 1: a pulse wave, showing the definitions of ymin, ymax and D.Pulse-widthmodulation uses a rectangular pulse wave whose pulse width is modulatedresulting in the variation of the average value of the waveform. If we considera pulse waveform f(t) with a low value ymin, a high value ymax and a duty cycleD (see figure 1), the average value of the waveform is given by:As f(t) is a pulse wave, its value is ymax for and ymin for . The aboveexpression then becomes:This latter expression can be fairly simplified in many cases where ymin = 0 as. From this, it is obvious that the average value of the signal () is directlydependent on the duty cycle D. Fig. 2: A simple method to generate the PWM pulse train corresponding to a given signal is the intersective PWM: the signal (here the green sinewave) is compared with a sawtooth waveform (blue). When the latter is less than the former, thePWM signal (magenta) is in high state (1). Otherwise it is in the low state(0).The simplest way to generate a PWM signal is the intersective method, whichrequires only a sawtooth or a triangle waveform (easily generated using a simple oscillator) and a comparator. When the value of the reference signal (the greensine wave in figure 2) is more than the modulation waveform (blue), the PWMsignal (magenta) is in the high state, otherwise it is in the low state.[edit] DeltaMain article: Delta modulationIn the use of delta modulation for PWM control, the output signal is integrated, and the result is compared with limits, which correspond to a reference signaloffset by a constant. Every time the integral of the output signal reaches oneof the limits, the PWM signal changes state.
 Fig. 3 : Principle of the delta PWM. The output signal (blue) is compared withthe limits (green). These limits correspond to the reference signal (red),offset by a given value. Every time the output signal reaches one of the limits, the PWM signal changes state.[edit] Delta-sigmaMain article: Delta-sigmamodulationIn delta-sigma modulation as a PWM control method, the output signal issubtracted from a reference signal to form an error signal. This error isintegrated, and when the integral of the error exceeds the limits, the outputchanges state. Fig. 4 : Principle of the sigma-delta PWM. The top green waveform is thereference signal, on which the output signal (PWM, in the middle plot) issubtracted to form the error signal (blue, in top plot). This error isintegrated (bottom plot), and when the integral of the error exceeds the limits(red lines), the output changes state.[edit] Space vector modulationMainarticle: Space vector modulationSpace vector modulation is a PWM control algorithm for multi-phase ACgeneration, in which the reference signal is sampled regularly; after eachsample, non-zero active switching vectors adjacent to the reference vector andone or more of the zero switching vectors are selected for the appropriatefraction of the sampling period in order to synthesize the reference signal asthe average of the used vectors.[edit] Direct torque control (DTC)Main article: Direct torque controlDirect torque control is a method used to control AC motors. It is closelyrelated with the delta modulation (see above). Motor torque and magnetic fluxare estimated and these are controlled to stay within their hysteresis bands byturning on new combination of the device's semiconductor switches each timeeither of the signal tries to deviate out of the band.[edit] Time proportioningMany digital circuits can generate PWM signals (e.g.many microcontrollers have PWM outputs). They normally use a counter thatincrements periodically (it is connected directly or indirectly to the clock ofthe circuit) and is reset at the end of every period of the PWM. When thecounter value is more than the reference value, the PWM output changes statefrom high to low (or low to high).[2] This technique is referred to as timeproportioning, particularly as time-proportioning control[3] – which proportionof a fixed cycle time is spent in the high state.The incremented and periodically reset counter is the discrete version of theintersecting method's sawtooth. The analog comparator of the intersecting method becomes a simple integer comparison between the current counter value and thedigital (possibly digitized) reference value. The duty cycle can only be variedin discrete steps, as a function of the counter resolution. However, ahigh-resolution counter can provide quite satisfactory performance.[edit] TypesFig. 5 : Three types of PWM signals (blue): leading edge modulation (top),trailing edge modulation (middle) and centered pulses (both edges are modulated, bottom). The green lines are the sawtooth waveform (first and second cases) anda triangle waveform (third case) used to generate the PWM waveforms using theintersective method.Three types of pulse-width modulation (PWM) are possible:The pulse center may be fixed in the center of the time window and both edgesof the pulse moved to compress or expand the width.The lead edge can be held at the lead edge of the window and the tail edgemodulated.The tail edge can be fixed and the lead edge modulated.[edit] SpectrumThe resulting spectra (of the three cases) are similar, and eachcontains a dc component, a base sideband containing the modulating signal andphase modulated carriers at each harmonic of the frequency of the pulse. The

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