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P. 1
Ch. 6

Ch. 6

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02/18/2013

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uc
Trusses,suchasthoseusedfortheroofofSafecoFieldInSeattle,providebothapracticalandaneconom~solutionto
man1;
engineering
problems.
 
6.1,INTRODUCTION
theproblemsconsidered
in
theprece
clingdllipter·
conernedtlie
flJuilibriUlll
ofasingle
rigid
bod,and
all
forces
invulved
wereexter-
roltothe.rigid
body.
'We
11m
consider
problemsdaling
'With
the
NJul1ihriumofstructuresmde
of
sevral
connected
parts.TItes'
pmh!E'I1Uiallfor
the
determinationnot
only
ofthcesternal
forces
a::ing
on
thestructurebut
1:1.150
of
the
forceswhich
hold
:togetherthe
l'iltlOUSal1s
or
the
structure.
From
thepoint
of
viewof
th
structur
.J!;.I
w1ll11e,hesforces
arc
tniemalforces.
Consider,foresample,thecrane
shown
in
Fig.
6.1a,\
hichcar-
;-j~S
a
IOild'
'~T.
The
Cr.111Cconsists
of
thr
e
bm,
AD,CF,
and
BE
connected
by
fncttonless
pins;
it
is
supportedb
a
pin
at
A
and
by
a
rable:
DC.
TheIree-bodydiagramoftheranehasbeendrawnin
Ig.(J,lb.Theexternal
forces,which
are.howninht:
c1iugrdlll.
in
dudetheweight
"T,
thetwo
eompon
nts
A-.:
and
J
of
the
reaction
alA,
andtheIoreeexertedb.thecable
at
D.The
internal
forces
holding
the
variousparts
or
h
'rail
tugt:lher
do
lIut
app"'uc
In
the
dliigrnm.
If,
howsv
f,
thecraneisdismemberedand
if
a
Iree-bodv
ililIgrtlmIs
drawn
for
each
of
its
componentparts.theforcesholding
the
three
beams
together
willalso
herepresented,since
theforces
a.'l
extenml
forcesfromthepointofvicwof
each
componentpart
fFig.6Je).
D
E
~F
/""
B
W
C
~
.
(110)
(b)
Fig.'6.1
11
\,~1Ibenoted
thIII··!u'force
exerte.at
R
Lmember
BE
0.11
member
AD
hasbeenrepresentedaseluaIandoppositetoth
rorceexertedat
th
samepointh
rnemher
AD
onmember
BE;
lhe
force
exerted
a
ey
BE
on
CF
i
sh
wn
equaland
oppm.iteto
!he
force
exerted
hy
GF
OD
BE;
and
thecomponentsofth
fore
ale
ed
atC
by
CF
on
J)
areshownequalandoppos:icto
th
corn-
]XI1IE'llls
ofthe
for'e
eserted
by
AD
on
CF.
TI
ls
is
Inconformlty
with
S·!1l'tou:s
third
law,
whtch
statesthat
theforcesofaction
and
react
ian
bmr:enbod:incontacthavethesamemagnitude,samelineof
IIrtilln,
nrulopposite.wmse.
Aspoinl"cclout
inhap.
1.Ihis
law,
which
is
basoo.
Uri
i;:XpC;lrirncnL
evidence,
is
all-
of
th
six
fundamental
principles
of,o,1
1Il,
entarymechanlcs,
n.nrl,...
its
a
p,.
plication
i!
eendal
to
thrsolutionof
problems
involving
nnnected
bodies.
ANALY.SISOFSTRUCTURES
6.1
In1roduct'ion
Trusses
6.2Definition
of"aTruss
6.3SimpleTrusses
6.4AnalysisofTrussesbytheMethod
ofJoints.
6.5Joints·I:lnderSpecialLoading
ConditTons
6.6SpaceTrusses6.7AnalysIs9'li'ussesby
the
Melhodof
SectIons
6.8TrussesMadeafSeverafSimple
Trusses
FramesandMachmes6.9StrucluresContaining,MulUforce
Members
6.10
Analysis·ofaFrame6.11FramesWhichCeasetoBeRigidWhenDet~ched'romTheirSupports6.12Machines
285
 
Photo6.1ShlJ'NnIsa
pln-lointed
oennectlon
on
theapproachspan
t
heSanFrancisco-Oand
BayBridge.
c
p
(0)
c
Fig.6.2
TRUSSES
.I
n
this
hapter;
Lhr
broad
cal
on.
ufengineering
structurewill
b
'U
sidere;
1.
Trusses,
whih
re
d
signed
t
S
lpport
loadsandre
1
tiona,full'ntruined
sllctures,
Trussescon"ist
lei·
sivel.o(stn
ight
mernbeconctd
j
in
1
COl
cd
<It
cm'~
each
ruemr.Memhrsof
truss,
tbrfore,are
flC
[oree
in
mbers.
that
i',
member
each
acteclupo
h)'
h\u
equaland
opposite
forcedirectedonthm
mbez
2.F
nmes,
whi
.hare
<LIs(
designed
0
support
loadsandare:
l!I'11ally.
tnti
nary.
run
uslrain
d
stru
ttl
res,Howeer,
Iili-
th
'nIHof
~g.
.1,
frames
alwayscontain
at
lc'
t
one
1l1IA~
lifome
mnuber;
thaIis.
memberacted
upon
b,
tl
rmoreforces\
ill
in
nen
1,
arnotdir
t
d
along
t:b
mml
T.
:1.
i'-
(tchine..,
vhicharedesigned
t
transmitd
rnodiffn
andarcstructnr.containiu
tlluving
parts.achi
("5,
frane.
h.
cntainatleaston
umltifol'member,
6.2.
DEFINITIONOFA
TRUSS
Tiletruss
L
oneof
he
m
JOT
typ.
f
enginering
tructur.It'dsboth·practicalnd
I.Ul
CL'OIlOlni~
1sol
J
iontoman'
"'"en"",...
ingsituations,especiallyinthedesignof
bridges
and
bUiJdings.A
i
1
n
IS
i
shownin
ig.
6.20-.trusscnsi
sts
oftrai~hlm
m
con
ct
d
atjoilils.Trus:mrn
r.reonue
ted
a
their
ti
onlv,thusnomernb
is
contmuou
~T'()ugb
a
j
lnt,Inorxmpl,
there
is
n
m
libr.AR;threareinstedtwo
Tit!
h
rs
AD
and
DR.
0
t
a
111,1
srructu
made
oftrutses
joinedtosothcrtofonua
sp.
l'rUIll~
OJ'k.
Each
tns
rlesigne
0
cartythoseloadsv
:Web
ac
in
it
pl,
nandthus
llhly
treat.
d
two-dimenstonul;'
fllctUf.
Ingeneral,the
members
0H
truss
are
'I~n]
rand
canlittlek
t
raJ
load;
all
load
therefore,
must
be
appli
d
to
the
joiuts,andn
t
tn111Pmmers
ther
set
es.1hcn
aconeentratedja
istobcppl'ed1
.hv
0
vo
join.
or\vhndtstributed
load
is
heupport'"
hy
thetrussas
tnthe.
eof
blidg
truss.
a
fl
or
t
I
must
U.,
vi
lpd
which,
thTIlgh
the
ring
and
beams.transmit
th
loatothejoint.
(Fig,.).
The
'c1
hrsofth
ill
mbers
of
the
tnLSS
arealsoassuind
10
appliedtothe.tnth·I.ofth\ci
nt
f
eachmember~ng,pli,dtoeachofthtwoloints
th
I
rnber
'onn
cs.thou
h
membersrueaetuallj
joined
together
b
mans
f
bolted
or
xinne
-ti
ns,
it
is
istumary
asume
th
t
th
mel
bers
aretoether;
th
refor.the
C
r
res
.lingrrt
each
endofamemr
t
asingle
free
and
no
~nple.
Thus,
th
oIlly
fore
s
assumed
be
tlJP1it'
J
toarussmh
T
are
Q
singlforce
t
d.
1
end
f

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