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Ch. 8

Ch. 8

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10/24/2012

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Theoperationoftheblc,yclebrakeshowndependsuponthenormaland.frictionforcesexertedbythebrakepadsontherimofthewheelasthepadsarepressedagainsttherim.
 
FI..TIO
8.1Introduction8.2TheLawsof
Dry
Fricllon.
Coefficients
0
Fr1ctlon
8.3
Angles01Friction8.4PrdblomsInvolving
Dry
ricion8.5Wedges8.6SquareThreadedScews8.7JournalBeanngs.AxleFriction
8.8ThrustBea~lngs.Disk
Frlotion8.9WeelFriChOn.RoJijngResistance
8.10BellFriction
412
8.1.INTRODUCTION
III
tl
e
preccdlchapters.
it
w
as
<
urnedthat
lilufn.
in
con
r
either
[ncuonless
or
rough.
Iftl._'
venfriction}s,the
fOll'!!
ea
h.
urfaceetertedonthe
othe.\
a
normal
0
ths
rfa
s
d
the
tw
LIT'l:P.
couldmovefrlwithresp
ct
t
e'
ch
other.
If
lhf'\l
W
ere!'ough,
it
\~'as
a~~llmedLh
t~gcntial(crt!",coulddsvlop
III
pn'Vell
themotion
of
one
surface
'l.VJU
rcspctto
thth
'T.
Thh
+ew\assi
plifip..{]
one.
A
tl1ally,
TlO
p
rfectly
frictionJ
surf
c
eKits
Wh
n
twosurfsare
l
ontaet,
tang'lltial~
rt,
callcdfricHonfor.'es,
will
alwas
d
elop
if
allat
empts
t1110Vone
surface
with
es
,t
to
thp
0
h
r,n
1
other
hand,I
e
friction
forcesarc
Iirnitcd
n
magnitml
and
ill
no
p
nl
mo
'011
if
s
ITt
eientlylareforcesarcapplied.
Thedistinctionbetweenfric
·orne.
id
rou
h
surfsls
rhus
matterof
d
gree.
his
willbesecmore
c,Lad
in
thepresent
chaptr,\
I
ddl
is
d
\lIed
to
tJ1P.
studyof
frit·
lion
id
of
its
apphoef
ns
to
cornmon
PIlgin
eringsituations.There.
tw
(PC's
f
rriction:
dnJ
friction,
ometime
called
Coulomh
frtctkn»;
arulfluidfricliol1.
Fl
iu.
r
iclion
de
slopsbelVt'PVTI
lav
T'i
f
nil
mingat
dilli-
renvIciti...uid
friction
is
of
reimp01tallcin
problemsInvolvinth
ow
f
fluid'i
throughpi
e
llJI.d
olin'
sordeiug
with
bdiesImmersed
illIII
ving
11'
Is.1.
nl
basic
in
th
ansisofthemalin
0
lubricated
JI
chants».
ucl.prlernar
C;),
idered
in
textson
TIm
mechanic.Thepres
study
is
limited
to
dry
r
rieti
n,
that
IS,
t
probl
01:;
invlying
rigidh
Ies
which
arcin
iontactalong
tumlubricated
surfaces,
n
th..
ilr
t
art
ofthischaj
ter.
theequilibiurnof\
ri
"-I
ri._
a
bodi
sandstru
'lure',
Ii
suming
dry
lri
ti
n
th-
rna'
of
con-
tact,
i
<
al)
d.
L~
tca
number
f
SJ
scific
nginccrllltf
a
pliL'tlto
\heredryInc'onpl
'5
animp
rtaut
rol
are
COl
rd
red:
'0;
ed
uar-threadedsere..
'so
jou
TlH
barin.hrns
bearings.
lllns
sis
ceandbeltfrietia,
8.2.THELAWSOF
D.RV
FRICTION.COEFFICIENTSOFFRICTION
TIle
1m
suf
dry
rli.
iUlI
are.
P.I
plifiedh.
th
foUowinb
C;\'P
rimenl,
Ablockofwei
hn'VispJac
d
m
ahrizeta!lane
surface(
i..
111
Theforcesactinontheblock
ar
i.
v
i
be\
andthe
rcncnon:
tle
III'
ace,.
inc
th
weighh·
11
1I0ri%
n
al
component.the
re'
tior
0
thesurface
0
hasn
horizontal
-omponent.tl
reacll
11
therfore
normal
to
thesurfaceand
i
r
prsented
b
r
inFi.
Is
,-ul
Pi
Po,
now,that
it
hrizontalForet'P
i:
applied
to
theblod
(Fi.
.1h).
IF
P
issmall,the
blockwill
1101
move:someothr
hon,
zonrc
IIlU.
therore
exi
t,
which
balan'.
This
nth.rF!
r.~
isthe
S{.(llic-jriclloll
fUr{
t\
hi
is
actuallyhe
resultant
ofa
1
numberofforce'actingner
tL
ntirsurfac
or.
It
a·(h
tw
I
theblockndtheplane.Thenatureoftheseforce
ts
I
ot
1010\
'D
xct
I
bu
t
it
Is
general]
assumed
thathesefor
esHe
ue
to
irregularitiesof
t],
rac.
itt
contctand,
La
acertainexten
10
molecular
alion.
 
If
theforce
P
is
increased,thefrictionforcealsoincreases,
continuingto
oppo~
P,untilitsmagnitndereachesacertain
ma:-
imum
colu
Fm
(Fig.
.Ic).
If
P
is
furthrincrp.<ed.
th
fii·ction
~r·
I)'
h)
Fig.S.l
fon:L:tlHllot
balanc
it
an)'
more
andtheblock
startssliding.
I
As
soonas
th~
bl'ok
hasben
s
t
in
motion,
the
magnitudeofclropsfrom
17",
to
alowervalue
fi'k.
Thi:sis
becausethereis
lessinterpcn-
etratlon
betweentheirregularities
'0
the
surfaceslueontact
whenthesesurfacesmove
with
respectto
each
other.From
then
on,
the
blockkeepssliding
with
increasingvelocitywhile
the
frictionforce,
denoted
by
Fk
andcalld
thf'
k/neUc-/rlrU(m
fore.
remains
i'I_P
proximatelyconstant.
Experimentalevidenceshowsthatthemaximumvalue
F'll
ofthe
stRti.c~frictionforce
is
proportionaltotheaormaloampon
nl
T
ofthe
reae'onof
thesurface."Ve
illrIe
En,
p,.,,..V
(8.1)
where
tL3
isa
constant
called
the
coefficimitofstaticfriction.
Simi-
larly.thf>
magnitude::
l;k
of
lll~
ldnetle-Frictlonfon.:e
Inaybeputin
tIle
form
(8.2.)
whcrcfLk
is
aconstant
called
the
coefficientofkineticfriction.
The
coefficicnlsoI
friction
./.ttl
and
i-'-k
donotdependupontheareaofthesurfaces
III
contact.Bothcoefficients,
however,
dependstrong!on
the
nature
or
th
surfacesincontact.Sine
thy
alsodepend
llpal
theexactconditionof
the
SWfClCCS,
their
valu
is
seldomknown
with
aft
accuracgreaterthan
5
p
sreent..
pprOldmclte
valuess
ofcoefficienlc;
iJ
t
.<Iumilrl
lu'mJt(,d
thnt.
H.~
til('
111'
rnttmlc
F
nth('
frit'iirmfun:...Inereases
rrll1l1
{;I
to
1"."
!.be
painl
ofIlPpli£lalloll
J\.
of
!:lit"
re~lJltaJltN
(If
tilt'
'[llInIIW
lill't.1!S
ur
c..~Inbi_Li.
·IIIU\'l'.~
tu
tJre.
ri~l.
solhnllh.eeeupleIonued,
re,;!'-=ctilltll}.h.
Pund1:
amI
Ly
\1\'
<U.1.J.
"rellulill
bal-
IIfIlX'd..
u:
r~lI.Chi!'s
B
beofollt'
freolCh~
.ILI
IliiLl
lmurn...Mlle
1-'",
tilt>
hlnck
will
tip
IiMut
lJ
~rON
Iteanstart
slidln
(Sf!1:'
Probs.
B.l5
and
8.16).
B.2.Th
lawsof
Dry
FricUon.CooJ'l'icle'l11&
0'
413
.Fncbo~
F
kl

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