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P. 1
Ch. 9

Ch. 9

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01/10/2014

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ib
eel
orces:
o
ne
Thesuengthofstructuralmembersdependstoalargeextentonthepropertiesoftheir
ercsssectiens,
partlcularlyontbesecondmoments,ermomentsofInertia:,oftheirareas.
 
DISTRIBUTEDFOA'CES:MOMENTSOFINERTIA9.1lntroducnonMomentsofInertiaofAreas
9.2SecondMomenl,orMomentofInorlia,
0
anArea9.3Determlnaion
G
theMoment
of
InertaofanArea
by
Integration9.4PolarMomentofInertia9.5RadiusofGyrationofanArea9.6Parallel-AXisTheorem9.7MomentsofInertiaofCompositeAeas
9.SProductofInertia9.9Principal
Axes
andPrin~pal
Momentsof
Inertia
9.10Mohr'sCilfcleforMomentsandProductsofInerUa
MomentsofInertiaofMasses
9.11MomentofInertiaoja
Mass
9.12Parallel-AxisTheorem9.1
iJ
MomentsofInertiaofThinPJates
9.14Deermlnatlon
ofhe
Moment
ofInertiaofaThree-Dimensional
Body
by
Inlegratlon9.15Moments
of
InertiaofComposite
Bodies
9.16MomentofInertiaofa
Body
with
Respect
to
anArbitraryAxis
throughO.MassProductsof
Inertia
9.17
Ellipsoidof
fnerlia
Prmcipal
AxesofInertia
9.1
a
Determination
of
tha
P.rincJpal
AxesandPrincipalMomentsof
InertiaofaBody01Arbitrary
Shape
472
9.1.NTRODUCTION
111
ClIHE'5
we
anruyzed
ri
11S
syst
HI'
of
forces
distributedoveran
are:or
111.
Th
ruuin
typ.
offm
~<;
conside
cI
"'t're1wightsofhnnogenuspl
tcs
of
unlf
rmthickn
S(
cs,
5.3
hl1ugh5.£)),2)
di.
ributedloaforces(Sec.
5.9),and
(3)\
igh
lr
mogcneous
t
ire
lim.
~inllnl
bodi(eo.5.10and5.11).
In
th
casIhomogenooulate'
tIl
magnlt
lei
u
r
th
w
(gh
oflemnofa
plate
was
proportional
tothearea
the.'
I'm
lit.
J-1(
r
rlLlrihuted
I
<
5111
It
III
uitu
e
b..
W
ofncbclcm
mtal
Wf
ight
was
T
presentedb
an
el
IIIII~
.H't:'H
6.
=
6,\F
tlnrlrtheloadcurve;
in
thecasof
hydrosu
ie
Corre_
on
I
lIlcrg
d
r
tanguhu
sface',H
similar
pi
~rllrp
was
roll
\~"U!.
In
:hecaseof
1
Or
ogeneol
thre
-<Ii
en
nonal
bodi.
th
lllllgllilude
~,r
0
tJ
It"
,eigbofandemen
t
r
tit
1xl
J\
Ii!
proortionalto
the\.
Lilli
b..'
or
theelement.Thus,
in
alleasesconsiIf'l'e-d
i
1
;h.
5.
the
~tIibut
dfor.were-
propo
lanai
totb.clrn~ntal
a's
rr
\'OIWll
assial
WI
h
them.
The
resultant
of
th
eforces,herefore,
could
be
b
ain
db.
'ulI1l11illg
he
rre
ponunanasrvolues,
and
th
me-
ill
III
f
tl
crcltanr
til
nttan.givn
xis
could
be
cle
(:"t1l1illt'-d
11co
pning
th
first
ITIOH1ents
0.
the.orvolumes
au
ut
that
axis.
L
tl.
rspart
ur
tlus
haptr;
W
onsidcristrilruted
forces
whose
magnitudesdepend.
notOll]}'lp11
th
1
muts
of
ar
;,t
~A
011
\hidthesforcesact
but
also
upon
H'~
ck
tanoe[romto
SOl
gi
t!1I
is,
10.1'
prcci
Iy,
tne
Hlag'litud
of
the
force
CI
unit
arell
6.f//!J.A
is
assum
d
tu
Vl.'
lill
'arl\
i
lh
the
distance
toheaxis,
As
i
ndic
ted
in
th
next
ction,
f
r
'f'S(
f
thi:
t
rpearefound
in
theru(~
thenclin
or
beams
and
inprobl
11'
in
'olving
ubmerg
dnn-
rclan
Ilat·
urfa
·~S..
ssumir
g
that
tlte:
eleuienallor
e.
involv
dtstributedoveranareaAandvaryllilG..'\rl.with
t].
ili
t811C.'€
!J
to
tfu..
x
<1:
i'.
t
\-i1l1)
sIlonthat
whil
the
magnihld"
of
leu'
re
tall
II
depend'up
TI
til
fi.
mom
nt
Q"
I
I
d
of
fliP
areathI-
lionofthepointwhereR
i.
applieddepend
upon1.
('0111
n~
II.n/,
r
mom-emofinertia,(~
=
J
~l
.::\
ofthesameareawithre-
sT
ct
to
th
I
am,
You
willl~.ml
10'.
mpute
the
mm
en
sfin.
of
ariou
areas
wit
re
·t
to
Tiven
x
and
y
axs,ls
intnxluc'
inthefirstP
rt
0['his
,11-
ptpl'
isthe
polo'momntofinertia
10-
I
r2
cl
ofanarea,W
er
r
i
I
disran
efrm
heI
menofa
clA()
thepoin.ToIacilitarcyour
conrputaticns,
arelation
\\~1
tablishedheheenthemomentofinertia
Ix
of
all
area
Ii
with
n;
p
ct
t
agiv-n:
a.W
an
ttl01111;'11
finrtia
i,
of'
I
h.
same
a
\'tllre
pet
!J)
the
p
allel
ccntrotdal
x',
ls
(parall-
xis
the
[I
You,...
ill
alotudthe
·al1sionn.
don
0
the
momentsof
inertia
of
giveuureiwl
U:'I1
thl:'
eoordln
le
:1...'1('5
arrotaed(Sc..
g.g
and
.I
In
thesecondartoft1u~
ch
pcr.
you
wi
learnhowto
dPiAl'mi
the
I
ornents
0
inerti,
>f
an
u
mases
with
reSI
t
'Q
am
'OU
will
set:
in
ec,
.11,
tl
p
momentofin
rti
ofagiven
mass
aooul
anaxis
AA'
is
definedas
I
=
I
,.2
dm,
whrc
r
is
lh.
J
i
'hmce
from
Ibt
axis
AA/
t
theelementofnu·s
thn.
Moments
ofinertiaofm
IIlilt
re
I
in
d
nomics
tor
h[pm,
il
ol
ing
therot
'on
ofuTi'
bo
lv
a
1I1t
an
axis.
ToIaeiltta
t
theeomputtionof
1.
moments'
in
rna.
theparallel-axistheorer
will
beintroduced(ec.9.12).J'inal
~uu\
-111
am
toanalyze
the
transformatiu
c
f
moments
of
inertia'
ass
wh
11
th.
coordina
C
axesare
rulal
tl(
t'"
,,9.16
throuzh9.1
 
MOMENTS
OF
:INERTIA
OF
AREAS
9'.2.
SECONDMOMENT
1
OR
MOMENTOF
INERTIA,OF
AN
AREA
In
tilt
trst
parlor
tlli.',
dmpt
'r,
w-
nsidor
distributed
forces
L\
whf)~~
magnitudes
of
are
proportional
to
theelementsof
area
.6.A
onwhichth
rOf
s
net
and
fit
th
c
sam
ti.IHP
varv
liIlP<l.l"l""ilh
the
WSblllCC
IrourMtoagiven
axis,.~
'onsidl!'t,farexample,a
beam
of
nuiform
cruss
re'tionwhichis
subjected
to
twoequal
and
opposite
couplesappliedataeliend
of
thebeam,'uchabeamis
saie]
tobinpup
bending,
and
it
isshown
in
mechanicsof
materialsthattheinternal
forcesin
any
scuon
of
the
beamaredistributeI
fUfCt'S
whose
magnirucs
l!J.F
=ky
l1j\
vary
1i-
I?nrlywiththE"di.
tanre
y
bl"'tv.l-'~llliP
Ie
III"'Ill
orarea
llll..
anti
an
axis
passingthrugbthecntroidofthr.:section.'his
axis,
repres
nted
b.'
the
:t
axis
ill
li·ig.
9.',
isknowu
as
the
neutralaxis
of
the
section.The
ro~es
011
onesid"oftheueutral
axis
arcforces
Q
(:omprssi)fl,
wlule
thosontheothersidenrcIoreesol
tension,
00
the
neutral
axisltsp,lf
the
rees
are
7£1"0.
TIle
magl1itud(,.>of
theresultantR
of
theelem
ntal
forcesilF
whicIt
actover
beentire
section
is
'fhe
Last
illt·
graI
nhtwnedisre
ogni?;t'das
the
firstmOm(mIQ~
of
thesectionuhc')utth
x
axis,
if
isxjwllto
!iLl
and.
is
thequaltozero,
since
thecentroid
ofthesectionislocated
OIl
thex
axis.
Thesystem
ufthe
forces
11.'
thusreduces
to
a
couple,
The
magnitnde
M
of
this
(Duple
(b
ndilllg
moment)mustb
qnal
tothe
sum
oftlu~
111011111
AM.
=
Ij
AF
=
ky!1:
oftheelementalforces.
11
tegrarulgover
the
ennreseetron,weobt'
M
=
f
krf
ciA
=
k
f
y2
ciA
9.2.SecondMoment
I)I.m
Ares
473
Pig.9.1
Thlast
illlt'gml
i.
known
;:LS
the
,Sli>cond
Inomcn!.
or
momentof
ll1t'r-
Ra,l
nf
tIlebeamscetiowithrespecttother
axis
andisdenotedb
I,.
Itis
obamed
bymultiplyingeacb
element
ofar-ea
dA
by
the
square
oj.if,'fdistance
lrom
th
x
.Il.,(jsand
integl'fll.iJlgOVf'r
the
bHn'l!l
.st'c'lioll.
·'nct'c.l.chproduct
y'l
eli!
is
positive,
l·egar
essof
thesign
of
'J,.
or
zero
{if
Y
is
zero),
theintegral
I,
will.
\VEl
-sbe
posi
tive,
notherexample
or
a
second
moment,
ormoment
of
inertia,
of
anarea
is
provided
by
the
[oUmviug
problem
frosnhydrm,tatit!..'i:
J\
v
'1"-
ticalcirculargaleusedtoclosethe
Oll
letof
d
Jar
te
r
···rvoirIssub-merged
under
'.wl.
erasshownin
:I<~i
g.9.
2.
wllu
t
istl
H~
re"sulli
I
t
ofthe
Iorecsexcrted
bthe
water
nilthegat~,and
whatis
tic
moment
0
the
restautabouttheline
(If
intersectionoftheplaneofthegateandthewatersuree
(x
wO.s)rFig.
9.2
iTlie
blnll
~["C4,"tl
llUlmellf[~mln'
p"'fM'rtlnm
ti,t'
tl'nn
mumenf
a/lucrtla,
sWCIe,log.
~).litelattershoukl
lit
used
uuI),
to
Ut-1H..t<!
iut('Mnd,~
elf
IIHIli.>;(S(:(~,
c,
9.J
J
1.In
engl.
nrc.in$!:
proctlce.
howt!
'!;.Ie.uomeot
1)[
iuertiu
i.\
U.'i'~tI
in
l'ClIllUo!l'lifJU
0.\;
I
umas
R.'!.
wellas
IlIlL"5CS,

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