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Ch. 10

# Ch. 10

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10/24/2012

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UsingtheanalyticalmethodsdiscussedInthis
chapter,
it
Iseasilyshownthattheforceexerted
by
thehydrauliccylindertoraisethescissor
lift
shownisindependentoftheworker'slocationontheplaUorm.

10.1Introduction10.2WorkofaForce
10.3PrincipleofVirtualWor'10.4Applicationsofthe
Prlnclple
ofVirtueJWork
10.5RealMachines.Mechanical
Efficiency
10.6Workofa
ForGe
duringaFinite
Displacement10.7PotentialEne,gy10.BPotenlialEnergyandEqUIlibrium10.9SlabllUyofEquilibrium
(J
Fig.10.1
558
*10.1.INTRODUCTION
III
thepre'(;ldi
Ilg
-II
<Ip
l
rs,probl
1:1
ns
invol\~ng
the
equilibrium
ofrigid
bodieswere
solved
by
cxprcssmg
tlattheexternalforcesacting
0.11
thebodieswere
balanc
d.
The
equations
ofequilibrium
1JFx::::
O.
'iF
II.:::
0,
:t.:iH
~=
0
'N
reo
'Vl"itt.~l
andsolvedforthe.desired
Iln~Jlowns.
method,
which
will
provmoreffe·c:tiv
{OJ'
solVlTlg
cr-
lain
typ
sof
equilibrium
problems,
v
Yin
nowbe
considered,
This
En
uhodisbesedon
thp
priniplp,
Ilf·
irt'/Jal
tcurk
,lid
W<l5
Br1it
for
wally
usedbtheSwismathematician[eanBeruoulliinthe
>iah·
eenthcentury
Asau
will
seeiu'ec.
1.0.3,theprin<:iplc
of
ir
uul\
ark
statesthat
if
Ii
pa:rtide
orrigid
body.
or,moregenerally.asysemof
con-
nect'dlibridbodtes,wldehisinequilibriumundervariousextemal
forces.
is
givellaniirbitnuy
di
':placell1(~ntfrom
tho
t
posHionofcqui-
libriurn,
the
ota)work
done
by
thoexternalforcesduring
Ill€'
dis-
placement
15
zero.Thisprinciple
is
parucularlyeffectivewhenappHI
torhcsolutionofproblemsinolving
dlf'!.@.
nililrriumof
machin
sormeoharusmsoonsistingofseveral
COnti
eted
Ji1
rnh~r5.thesecondpartofthechapterthemethodofvirtualworkv"illbeappltcdinanailernativeformbasedontheconeptof
pote-flfiJtI
energy.
It
will
h
shownin
SBC~
10.
tJlat
i
aparttcl"
ligid
body,
orsystem
(J£
rigidbodiesismeguilihl;um,thenthederivative
of
its
potentialfllergy
Vlith
Tt""Pl':cttn
a
variable
dAning
f~
p
sition
musl
hI"
zero.Inthischapter,'oawillalsoteam
1'0
valuarthemechanical
efHci
ne)'
.of'
a_
1lIa·lliH~(,
'el".10..
5)
and
to
d~terrnin~
whether
agivcn
positionofequillriulil
is
sti.lb]·,uustalrlc,orneutral(.c.10.9).
10.2.WORKOFAFORCE
Letus
first
definetheterms
displacement
and
tvor*
as
theare
used
in
mechanics.Considerapartiile
whichmovesfrom
a
point
A
to
a
n@;ighl.o·ngp
inl
'(Fig.lO.1),lf,·Jnot,csthcpo·ition
ectorcor-
re.~pmldillg
t()
puint
A,
th~small\'
.utQr
joining
A
and
A
I
may
b
de-
noted
byth.
difler
'II
lal
dr:
thf'vector
elf'
iseJed
he
rlisplclcement
of
lh··
particle.owlet
usassumethata
furcf;'
F
is
acting,
onthepar-
t!
'ic'!.
The
workof
tIl
force_
ol'm!SrJOndlrw
to
th
dlsplacem
nl
elr
isdefinedasthe
qu
nltty
d'~
L
d
="'..
1"
(10.1)
btained
byorming
I
hescalarproductof
I
hernroe
Fand
dIP
dis-
placement
ds:
Denoting
l'esp
ctively
by
F
.l1I1d
tis
th
U1ugnitudes
of
theforceand
or
thedisplacement.and
by
a
the
anglelimned
bF
anddr',
nnd
fecnUirlg
thp
nf'finition
ofthe
scalar
prollucl
ofwo
Vf'C
tors(Sec..'3.9),we\
tit.~
dU
=
F
ds
cos
a
(10.1')
B
inga
scalarquantity,
workh~·.amagnttudcand.\
sign.butno
direction.
\rVealsonote
thatwork
should
beexpressed
in
umts

olrtainedhmultipl
ing
nni
SO
'lengthbrunitof
force.
hus,
if""
utc
mary
unitsarc
II
cd,
W(
rkshoulbec
pre
'sed
il
rt·
lb
or
ill.
lb.If
r
unitsaxused,workshouldbe-expressedin.
III
The
unitof\
'n
k
N.
miscall
id
a
j
ule
(J).
f
It(How.from(10,1')thattlreworkd
i.
poitiveiftleglea
isacutndnegl:L.
if
a
isbtu
T.
Thr
particularcascoare
of.
p-
ctal
Int
rest
.1
f
t
he
fOT!
'ehasthearnedireetionas
d',
thework
dU
reducesto
ds.
If
has
iii
dirlionoH
osit
t
thnt
or
dr,
tht>
work
is
dU
=
P
ds,
inall
I
if.F
is
pcrpcndi
'II]
1.1'
to
dr,
the
w
rl
rlU
j,
ZPJ'O,
The
work
dU
f
H}
I'
eFduring.
displa
'PTllPrl
rI.·
nal
b
consideredastheproductof17andthecompon
nt
cis
c
a
of
the
tli
'pla
menl
dr
ul
ngF
(Fig.lO.2a.),
This
view
isparticularlj
useful
c
rig
G'
(I'f
Fig.10.2
(hI
ill
th
co01puLation
f
the
\J
ork
all
y
the
W
19b,of'a
bod,
('ig.
1O.2hJThework
ofW
i1.
equal
t
thepr
clue
If\
and111vcrttci..d
rlisplament
dlj
ofthecuter
0
gr.
vity
Gof
i
1
tr
the
i'-
placmnt
is
ownwarrth
0
kisPitive,
i
it
isupward.thework
istlegatie.
munlrofforce
frequently
eucountcrc
in
staH<..'s
do
110I
ark:
forces
'Ippljpo
10
IlxIpoi"~s
(d.v
=
0)or
tin
in
atliec
'0
er-
I
n
1i
:1.lIa1'
t
th
displacmen(os
ct-
0).
II
the'e
f4lt
s
at
th
>
reactinataIncuonlepin
rl
ph;
in
contactmov
i
alon
tIl
SUIfaC.'C;
11m
reactioo
,t
aroller
moving
n
Us
track;the
weightofa
body
whenits
'(;!ntr
ofgmvity
mov
!)
Irori
z
tc.,;
<Lullhe
r
ic'on
Iorc
ti
onaheelrolling
wt
out
lip-ping(Ince
t,
n:
instan
th
poi
It
of,ntnt'lcasnotmove),
Examplesof
forces
which
dowork
<
'C
the
w
j
b
of
8.
b
d
I
(ept
ill
the
ase
constdereil
al
ve),the
Id
lionfa'e'
till~
on
<
body
lid-
ingema
co
g1
SUlfae,
rnI
In.
t
forces
appHf'n
t
'11
ving
ody,
iTh[onlc
i~
Ih
SluJlilnf
energy.
whether
In
IIwclIw
torm
(",wk,
po
c'l1h..J
c"lltc'rg;.'
kinetic!'TID'lur
tn
~ht'miC1'l1
l'.('
('nI,OT11'1111
Inu.We:
tIt
uld
II
th.tI
e-u
though
N.
In
=
J,
thc'moment
of'il
QfC(.>
mu
·t
lX'
'·;\1m::..
I
Dl
1\.
In,
andnot
111
)111,-.,;
LI
moment
I)
i(
n:
is
not
iI
form
or
m:I!\'
10.2.WorkofForce
559
lhehydraulic
cylindersto
position
hebucetIshowncanbe
effectivelydeteminedusing1I1emethodofvlrt
aI
worksince
8
slmplerelalioexists
Among
thedlsplcementsof
the
points
0
appl
C8
en
of
the
ercesaeUngonthemembers01
t
elift,