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Table Of Contents

INTRODUCTION
1.1 UNCERTAINTY IN ROBOTICS
1.2 PROBABILISTIC ROBOTICS
1.3 IMPLICATIONS
1.4 ROAD MAP
1.5 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REMARKS
RECURSIVE STATE ESTIMATION
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.3.2 Environment Interaction
2.3.3 Probabilistic Generative Laws
2.3.4 Belief Distributions
2.4 BAYES FILTERS
2.4.1 The Bayes Filter Algorithm
2.4.2 Example
2.4.3 Mathematical Derivation of the Bayes Filter
2.4.4 The Markov Assumption
2.5 REPRESENTATION AND COMPUTATION
2.6 SUMMARY
2.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REMARKS
GAUSSIAN FILTERS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 THE KALMAN FILTER
3.2.1 Linear Gaussian Systems
3.2.2 The Kalman Filter Algorithm
3.2.3 Illustration
3.2.4 Mathematical Derivation of the KF
3.3 THE EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER
3.3.1 Linearization Via Taylor Expansion
3.4.3 Mathematical Derivation of the Information Filter
3.4.4 The Extended Information Filter Algorithm
3.4.6 Practical Considerations
3.5 SUMMARY
3.6 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REMARKS
NONPARAMETRIC FILTERS
4.1 THE HISTOGRAM FILTER
4.1.1 The Discrete Bayes Filter Algorithm
4.1.2 Continuous State
4.1.3 Decomposition Techniques
4.1.4 Binary Bayes Filters With Static State
4.2 THE PARTICLE FILTER
4.2.1 Basic Algorithm
4.2.2 Importance Sampling
4.2.3 Mathematical Derivation of the PF
4.2.4 Properties of the Particle Filter
4.3 SUMMARY
4.4 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REMARKS
ROBOT MOTION
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 PRELIMINARIES
5.2.1 Kinematic Configuration
5.2.2 Probabilistic Kinematics
5.3 VELOCITY MOTION MODEL
5.3.1 Closed Form Calculation
5.3.2 Sampling Algorithm
5.3.3 Mathematical Derivation
5.4 ODOMETRY MOTION MODEL
5.4.1 Closed Form Calculation
5.4.2 Sampling Algorithm
5.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REMARKS
MEASUREMENTS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 MAPS
6.3 BEAM MODELS OF RANGE FINDERS
6.3.1 The Basic Measurement Algorithm
6.3.2 Adjusting the Intrinsic Model Parameters
6.3.3 Mathematical Derivation
6.3.4 Practical Considerations
6.4 LIKELIHOOD FIELDS FOR RANGE FINDERS
6.4.1 Basic Algorithm
6.4.2 Extensions
6.5 CORRELATION-BASED SENSOR MODELS
6.6 FEATURE-BASED SENSOR MODELS
6.6.1 Feature Extraction
6.6.2 Landmark Measurements
6.6.3 Sensor Model With Known Correspondence
6.6.4 Sampling Poses
6.6.5 Further Considerations
6.7 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
6.8 SUMMARY
MOBILE ROBOT LOCALIZATION
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 A TAXONOMY OF LOCALIZATION PROBLEMS
7.3 MARKOV LOCALIZATION
7.4 ILLUSTRATION OF MARKOV LOCALIZATION
7.5 EKF LOCALIZATION
7.5.1 Illustration
7.5.2 The EKF Localization Algorithm
7.5.3 Mathematical Derivation
7.6 ESTIMATING CORRESPONDENCES
7.6.1 EKF Localization with Unknown Correspondences
7.6.2 Mathematical Derivation
7.7 MULTI-HYPOTHESIS TRACKING
7.8 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
7.9 SUMMARY
GRID AND MONTE CARLO LOCALIZATION
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 GRID LOCALIZATION
8.2.1 Basic Algorithm
8.2.2 Grid Resolutions
8.2.3 Computational Considerations
8.2.4 Illustration
8.3 MONTE CARLO LOCALIZATION
8.3.1 The MCL Algorithm
8.3.2 Properties of MCL
8.3.3 Random Particle MCL: Recovery from Failures
8.3.4 Modifying the Proposal Distribution
8.4 LOCALIZATION IN DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS
8.5 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
8.6 SUMMARY
8.7 EXERCISES
OCCUPANCY GRID MAPPING
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 THE OCCUPANCY GRID MAPPING ALGORITHM
9.2.1 Multi-Sensor Fusion
9.3 LEARNING INVERSE MEASUREMENT MODELS
9.3.1 Inverting the Measurement Model
9.3.2 Sampling from the Forward Model
9.3.3 The Error Function
9.3.4 Further Considerations
9.4 MAXIMUM A POSTERIOR OCCUPANCY MAPPING
9.4.1 The Case for Maintaining Dependencies
9.4.2 Occupancy Grid Mapping with Forward Models
9.5 SUMMARY
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 SLAM WITH EXTENDED KALMAN FILTERS
10.2.1 Setup and Assumptions
10.2.2 SLAM with Known Correspondence
10.2.3 Mathematical Derivation
10.3 EKF SLAM WITH UNKNOWN CORRESPONDENCES
10.3.1 The General EKF SLAM Algorithm
10.3.2 Examples
10.3.3 Feature Selection and Map Management
10.4 SUMMARY
10.5 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REMARKS
10.6 PROJECTS
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 INTUITIVE DESCRIPTION
11.3 THE EIF SLAM ALGORITHM
11.4 MATHEMATICAL DERIVATION
11.4.1 The Full SLAM Posterior
11.4.2 Taylor Expansion
11.4.3 Constructing the Information Form
11.4.4 Reducing the Information Form
11.4.5 Recovering the Path and the Map
11.5 DATA ASSOCIATION IN THE EIF
11.5.2 Mathematical Derivation
11.6 EFFICIENCY CONSIDERATION
11.7 EMPIRICAL IMPLEMENTATION
11.8 SUMMARY
12.1 INTRODUCTION
12.2 INTUITIVE DESCRIPTION
12.3 THE SEIF SLAM ALGORITHM
12.4 MATHEMATICAL DERIVATION
12.4.1 Motion Update
12.4.2 Measurement Updates
12.5.1 General Idea
12.5.2 Sparsifications in SEIFs
12.5.3 Mathematical Derivation
12.6 AMORTIZED APPROXIMATE MAP RECOVERY
12.7 HOW SPARSE SHOULD SEIFS BE?
12.8 INCREMENTAL DATA ASSOCIATION
12.8.1 Computing Data Association Probabilities
12.8.2 Practical Considerations
12.9 TREE-BASED DATA ASSOCIATION
12.9.1 Calculating Data Association Probaiblities
12.9.2 Tree Search
12.9.3 Equivalency Constraints
12.9.4 Practical Considerations
12.10 MULTI-VEHICLE SLAM
12.10.1 Fusing Maps Acquired by Multiple Robots
12.10.2 Establishing Correspondence
12.11 DISCUSSION
13.1 LATEST DERIVATION
13.2 MOTIVATION
13.3 MAPPING WITH EM: THE BASIC IDEA
13.4 MAPPING WITH THE EM ALGORITHM
13.4.1 The EM Mapping Algorithm
13.4.2 The Map Likelihood Function
13.4.3 Efficient Maximum Likelihood Estimation
13.4.4 The E-step
13.4.5 The M-step
13.4.6 Examples
13.5 GRID-BASED IMPLEMENTATION
13.6 LAYERED EM MAPPING
13.6.1 Layered Map Representations
13.6.2 Local Maps
13.6.3 The Perceptual Model For Layered Maps
13.6.4 EM with Layered Maps
13.6.5 The Layered EM Mapping Algorithm
13.6.6 Examples
13.7 SUMMARY
13.8 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REMARKS
FAST INCREMENTAL MAPPING ALGORITHMS
14.1 MOTIVATION
14.2 INCREMENTAL LIKELIHOOD MAXIMIZATION
14.3 MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD AS GRADIENT DESCENT
14.3.1 Search in Pose Space
14.3.2 Gradient Calculation
14.3.3 Suggestions for the Implementation
14.3.4 Examples
14.3.5 Limitations
14.4 INCREMENTAL MAPPING WITH POSTERIOR ESTIMATION
14.4.1 Detecting Cycles
14.4.2 Correcting Poses Backwards in Time
14.4.3 Illustrations
14.5 MULTI-ROBOT MAPPING
14.6 MAPPING IN 3D
14.7 SUMMARY
14.8 BIBLIGRAPHICAL REMARKS
14.9 PROJECTS
MARKOV DEVISION PROCESSES
15.1 MOTIVATION
15.2 UNCERTAINTY IN ACTION SELECTION
15.3 VALUE ITERATION
15.3.1 Goals and Payoff
15.3.2 Finding Control Policies in Fully Observable Domains
15.3.3 Value Iteration
15.3.4 Illustration
16.1 MOTIVATION
16.2 FINITE ENVIRONMENTS
16.2.1 An Illustrative Example
16.2.3 Calculating the Value Function
16.2.4 Linear Programming Solution
16.3 GENERAL POMDPS
16.3.1 The General POMDP Algorithm
16.4 A MONTE CARLO APPROXIMATION
16.4.1 Monte Carlo Backups
16.4.1.1 Learning Value Functions
16.4.1.2 Nearest Neighbor
16.4.2 Experimental Results
16.5 AUGMENTED MARKOV DECISION PROCESSES
16.5.1 The Augmented State Space
16.5.2 Value Iteration in AMDPs
16.5.3 Illustration
16.6 SUMMARY
16.7 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REMARKS
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Probabilistic Robotics

Probabilistic Robotics

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Published by: jeregon on Apr 27, 2011
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