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Motivation in Theory

Motivation in Theory

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Published by Subhash Soni

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Published by: Subhash Soni on Apr 27, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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motivation in theory - introductionWhat is Motivation?
Buchanan defines motivation as follows:
"Motivation is a decision-making process, throughwhich the individual chooses the desired outcomesand sets in motion the behaviour appropriate tothem".
How does motivation differ from "motives"Buchanan defines motives as:
"learned influences on human behaviour that leadus to pursue particular goals because they arevalued".
Motivation can therefore be thought of as the degreeto which an individual
to engagein certain behaviours.
For example
: are you motivated to study? Theanswer lies in whether you(1) Want to study - what are the reasons, if so?(2) Choose to study? - Why are you reading theserevision notes? What factors mean that you havetaken the decision to study? How much effort do youput in?
Individual behaviour is at the heart of humanmotivation
Why is individual behaviour so important in trying tounderstand and then influence motivation?- Every individual has a set of 
and a differentset of 
- Individuals behave in a way as to satisfy their needsand fulfil their goals- Therefore, individuals behave differently!- Businesses, as organisations, are in a position tooffer some of the satisfactions that individuals seek:E.g. - Relationships; sense of belonging; intellectualstimulation; mental & physical challenge; self-development
Why is motivation important for businesses?
It is often said that the best businesses have the bestmotivated workers. Why might this be important?Because well-motivated employees are usuallycharacterised by:- Higher productivity (i.e. they produce more for agiven level of resources than poorly-motivatedworkers)- Better quality work with less wastage
- A greater sense of urgency (things happen quicker -when they need to)- More employee feedback and suggestions made forimprovements (motivated workers take more"ownership" of their work")- More feedback demanded from superiors andmanagement- Working at 80-95% of their ability
motivation in theory - herzberg twofactor theoryIntroduction
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory is a "content theory" of motivation"(the other main one is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs).Herzberg analysed the job attitudes of 200accountants and engineers who were asked to recallwhen they had felt positive or negative at work andthe reasons why.From this research, Herzberg suggested a two-stepapproach to understanding employee motivation andsatisfaction:

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