Ramjee Prasad10804900Rh6802B54B.Tech (LEET)ECEIntroduction:
The term robot comes from the Czech word
, generally translated as "forced labor."This describes the majority of robots fairlywell. Most robots in the world are designed for heavy, repetitive manufacturing work. Theyhandle tasks that are difficult, dangerous or boring to human beings.The most common manufacturing robot is the
. A typical robotic arm is made upof seven metal segments, joined by six joints.The computer controls the robot by rotatingindividual
connected to each joint(some larger arms use hydraulics or pneumatics). Unlike ordinary motors, stepmotors move in exact increments. This allowsthe computer to move the arm very precisely,repeating exactly the same movement over andover again. The robot uses motion sensors tomake sure it moves just the right amount.An industrial robot with six joints closelyresembles a human arm -- it has the equivalentof a shoulder, an elbow and a wrist. Typically,the shoulder is mounted to a stationary basestructure rather than to a movable body. Thistype of robot has six
degrees of freedom
,meaning it can pivot in six different ways. Ahuman arm, by comparison, has seven degreesof freedom.Like our arm's job is to move your hand from place to place. Similarly, the robotic arm's jobis to move an
from place to place.You can outfit robotic arms with all sorts of end effectors, which are suited to a particular application. One common end effector is asimplified version of the hand, which cangrasp and carry different objects. Robotichands often have built-in
that tell the computer how hard the robot isgripping a particular object. This keeps therobot from dropping or breaking whatever it'scarrying. Other end effectors include blowtorches, drills and spray painters.Industrial robots are designed to do exactly thesame thing, in a controlled environment, over and over again. For example, a robot mighttwist the caps onto peanut butter jars comingdown an assembly line. To teach a robot howto do its job, the programmer guides the armthrough the motions using a handheldcontroller. The robot stores the exact sequenceof movements in its memory, and does it againand again every time a new unit comes downthe assembly line.Most industrial robots work in auto assemblylines, putting cars together. Robots can do a lotof this work more efficiently than human beings because they are so precise. Theyalways drill in the exactly the same place, andthey always tighten bolts with the sameamount of force, no matter how many hoursthey've been working. Manufacturing robotsare also very important in the computer industry. It takes an incredibly precise hand to put together a tiny microchip.
Defining parameters :
Number of axes
– two axes arerequired to reach any point in a plane;three axes are required to reach any point in space. To fully control theorientation of the end of the arm (i.e.the wrist) three more axes (yaw, pitch,and roll) are required. Some designs(e.g. theSCARArobot) tradelimitations in motion possibilities for cost, speed, and accuracy.