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Fascism

Fascism

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Published by Joyce Seo

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Published by: Joyce Seo on Apr 27, 2011
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04/27/2011

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Fascism
1.
 
What is Fascism?a.
 
Ideology that exalts the nation over the individuali.
 
Similar to communism, but they hate each other ii.
 
Centralized authoritarian government led by a disciplined party andheaded by a dictatorial, charismatic leader 1.
 
Glorification of the leader a.
 
Embodiment of the party ± party = embodiment of thenationiii.
 
Tight state control over economy and society1.
 
State planningiv.
 
Political opposition suppressed1.
 
Similar to communismv.
 
Glorified warfare and nationalism1.
 
In communism, gets rid of warfare and nationalism b.
 
Supported by the middle classes and the rural populationsi.
 
Rural ± tended to be less educatedc.
 
Masters of propagandai.
 
Able to gain mass supportii.
 
 New technology in media and communicationsd.
 
Root = fascesi.
 
Symbol of imperium in Ancient Rome2.
 
Italy ± Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)a.
 
Why was fascism appealing?i.
 
Went through a series of disappointmentsii.
 
Political and economic paralysisiii.
 
Felt as though they needed a strong leaders b.
 
Mussolinii.
 
 Nickname = Il Duce (leader)ii.
 
Was originally a communist journalist1.
 
Galvanized supporters through his writings, and then through theradio2.
 
Created a military organization (non government thugs whoreported to him who adopted the kinds of outward trappings of themilitary)a.
 
Called Black Shirtsc.
 
Mussolini¶s Policiesi.
 
One party dictatorship1.
 
Everything else was illegalii.
 
Crushed labor unions1.
 
Favored corporatisma.
 
The government mediates between groups in society toimprove the societyi.
 
Wasn¶t a conflictual relationship between ownersand workers
 
Fascism
1.
 
Was collaborative, but the government inreality was ensuring the owners a steadylabor supply b.
 
Investment in infrastructurei.
 
Rebuilding Italy1.
 
Building railway lines, dams, etca.
 
This provided jobs ± highunemployment rate plummetediii.
 
Ethnocentrism1.
 
There is a strong tendency to celebrate ± glorifying your ownnationa.
 
The root of Italy¶s weakness was that there weren¶t enough people2.
 
Birth rate policies ± outlawed birth control3.
 
Anti-Semitism (only after relationship with Hitler)a.
 
Made alliancesiv.
 
Militarism1.
 
Has to show the world what he has ± determined to create anItalian empirea.
 
Attacked Ethiopia (1935-1936)i.
 
Successful²widespread world condemnationii.
 
In response, Mussolini withdrew from League of  Nations1.
 
Also something that Hitler does3.
 
Germany ± Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)a.
 
What was Nazism appealing? ± National socialisti.
 
Massive inflationii.
 
Interwar period ± Weimar 1.
 
German democracy didn¶t work very well, incomes were renderedworthlessa.
 
Lower middle class people ± strongest supporters b.
 
Who was Hitler?i.
 
Austrianii.
 
WW1 veteran, was a corporaliii.
 
Believed that all Germans should be united1.
 
Anyone who spoke German2.
 
Included Austriaiv.
 
Joined National Socialists (Nazis) in 1920¶s1.
 
Effective public speaker ± charismaticv.
 
Mein Kampf (1924) ± autobiography1.
 
 Not only a description ± but lays out a blueprint for what he wantsEurope to be for the futurea.
 
Lebensraum ± living room/spacei.
 
Extra space to expand into for the Germans1.
 
Eastern Europe
 
Fascism
a.
 
Believes that Slavs are geneticallyinferior to the Germans b.
 
Felt as though they were part of theAryans ± historically inaccuratevi.
 
Admirer of Mussolini1.
 
Loved how he created his own militiaa.
 
Created his own armyi.
 
Storm Troopers (SA¶s)vii.
 
 Named Chancellor of Germany (1933)1.
 
Tried to create a one party state2.
 
Was electedc.
 
Hitler¶s policiesi.
 
One party rule1.
 
Pretext: Reichstag firea.
 
Staged a fire and blamed it on the communists; had theexcuse to round up the communists and throw them into jail2.
 
Used thugs to intimidate opponentsa.
 
SA, SS (carried out the Holocaust), and Gestapo (secret police)3.
 
Banned other political partiesa.
 
Limited freedom of press, speech, and judiciaryii.
 
Control over economy1.
 
Outlawed strikes and collective bargaining2.
 
Guaranteed everyone a job and basic welfarea.
 
Access to healthcare, etc3.
 
Rebuilt infrastructurea.
 
Weimar = paralysisi.
 
So many people were supportive of Hitler iii.
 
Militarism1.
 
Actively rebuilt ita.
 
Germany after WW1 had to have a smaller army, etc b.
 
Ignored that and began rebuilding the army anyway2.
 
Although many people realized this, they gave in because theywere afraid of having another war ± appeasementiv.
 
Ethnocentrism and Anti-Semitism1.
 
Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) and Austriaa.
 
Anschluss ± alliance between Austria and Germany b.
 
In Czechoslovakia -- Sudetenland ± where Germans werelivingi.
 
All Germans should live together in one countryc.
 
Diplomatic conference ± the Czech, the British, andGermanyi.
 
British prime minister ± Sir Neville Chamberlainagreed to give Hitler Sudetenland so that Hitler wouldn¶t declare war 1.
 
Called appeasement

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