There are many contrasts between the laws from country to country because allsocieties have their own peculiar needs. In the same vein, there are many contrasts between law within a country (municipal law) and the law that operates outside and between nation-states. The necessity of law is most desired where there is any kind of integration and interaction between two or more interests. This is the foundation of international law which operates to regulate relations between international interestsand subjects. International Law is the body of principles, rules, and standards thatgovern nations and other participants in international affairs in their relations withone another. Most international law consists of long-standing customs, provisionsagreed to in treaties, and generally accepted principles of law recognized by nations.Some international law is also created by the rulings of international courts andorganizations.The purposes of international law include resolution of problems of a regional or global scope (such as environmental pollution or global warming), regulation of areasoutside the control of any one nation (such as outer space or the high seas), andadoption of common rules for multinational activities (such as air transport or postalservice). International law also aims to maintain peaceful international relations when possible and resolve international tensions peacefully when they develop, to preventneedless suffering during wars, and to improve the human condition during peacetime.
Sources of international law are the materials and processes out of which therules and principles regulating the international community are developed. Theyhave been influenced by a range of political and legal theories. During the 19thcentury, it was recognised by legal positivists that a sovereign could limit itsauthority to act by consenting to an agreement according to the principle
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This consensual view of international law was reflected in the 1920Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice, and preserved in Article38(1) of the 1946 Statute of the International Court of Justice
Article 38(1) is generally recognised as a definitive statement of the sources of international law. It requires the Court to apply, among other things,
cases (1969). A treaty is based on the consent of the parties to it, is binding, and must be executed ingood faith. The concept known by the Latin formula
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(“agreements must be kept”) isarguably the oldest principle of international law. Without such a rule, no international agreement would bebinding or...