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eeprom

eeprom

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Published by ARVIND
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about eeprom

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Published by: ARVIND on Apr 28, 2011
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 O M 
 
Arvind
 
2011
EEPROM
 
EEPROM
Thu
rsday,
 
April
28
,
2011 P
age
1
EPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. AnEEPROM is like anEPROMchip since it can be written in or programmed more than once.Unlike the EPROM chip, however, an EEPROM chip need not be taken out of the computer or electronic device of which it is part when a new program or data needs to be written on it.Selective programming can be done to an EEPROM chip. The user can alter the value of certaincells without needing to erase the programming on other cells. Thus, sections of data can beerased and replaced without needing to alter the rest of the chip's programming.Data stored in an EEPROM chip is permanent, at least until the user decides to erase and replacethe information it contains. Furthermore, the data stored in an EEPROM chip is not lost evenwhen power is turned off.
History of the EEPROM
The EEPROM is a modification of the EPROMand was designed by George Perlegos . Its development began in 1978 while Perlegos was still employed by Intel.However the archetypal EEPROM still had to be takenout of the computer or electronic device of which it was part if any reprogramming was necessary.When Perlegos left Intel to form Seeq Technology, he designed the first fully functionalEEPROM. To eliminate the necessity of external programming, Perlegos and company made theinsulating layer thinner and integrated an oscillator and capacitor circuit into the memory chipitself. This charge pump can produce the necessary programming voltage. Since it is fullyintegrated in every EEPROM chip, there is no need to take out the EEPROM chip for erasingand programming. To configure an EEPROM chip, an electric field produced by the charge pump is applied locally to cells marked for modification.
 
EEPROM
Thu
rsday,
 
April
28
,
2011 P
age
2
S
tructure
The EEPROM chip is physically similar to the EPROM chip. It is also composed of cellswith two transistors. The floating gate is separated from the control gate by a thin oxide layer.Unlike the EPROM chip, however, the EEPROM chip's oxide layer is much thinner. InEEPROM chips, the insulating layer is only around 1 nanometre thick whereas in EPROM chips,the oxide layer is around 3 nanometres thick. The thinner oxide layer means lower voltagerequirements for initiating changes in cell value.Tunnelingthe electrons of the floating gate towards the oxide layer separating thefloating gate and the control gate is still the method of changing a bit's value from 1 to 0. Toerase EEPROM programming, the electron barrier still has to be overcome by the application of enough programming voltage.
EEPROM Limitations
While the EEPROM can be reprogrammed, the number of times it can be altered islimited. This is the main reason why EEPROM chips are popular for storing only configurationdata such as the computer'sBIOScode which doesn't require frequent reprogramming. The oxideinsulating layer can be damaged by frequent rewrite. Modern-day EEPROMs can be rewritten upto a million times.I have been asked many times by users of the pocket programmer , if there is a good book that explains all the dirty little secrets about how EPROMs work. Well, it looks as if there isn'tone. So, here is my humble attempt to provide a dose of information about them.Binary refers to
base two
or a
two-state digit 
called a
bit.
A
bit 
is either on or off -represented as a '1' for 
on
(the
 set 
state) and '0' for 
off 
(the
cleared 
state). Eight
bits
together forma
byte
and are written as 00110101b (or sometimes %00110101). The 'b' stands for 
binary,
andlets you know that we aren't talking about 110,101, the decimal number. A byte or multiples of  bytes set the register size for microcomputers.
 Hexadecimal 
(
hex)
is a
base 16 
way of representing one
byte
. Hexadecimal uses the digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A, B, C, D, E, F. A byte

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