The EEPROM chip is physically similar to the EPROM chip. It is also composed of cellswith two transistors. The floating gate is separated from the control gate by a thin oxide layer.Unlike the EPROM chip, however, the EEPROM chip's oxide layer is much thinner. InEEPROM chips, the insulating layer is only around 1 nanometre thick whereas in EPROM chips,the oxide layer is around 3 nanometres thick. The thinner oxide layer means lower voltagerequirements for initiating changes in cell value.Tunnelingthe electrons of the floating gate towards the oxide layer separating thefloating gate and the control gate is still the method of changing a bit's value from 1 to 0. Toerase EEPROM programming, the electron barrier still has to be overcome by the application of enough programming voltage.
While the EEPROM can be reprogrammed, the number of times it can be altered islimited. This is the main reason why EEPROM chips are popular for storing only configurationdata such as the computer'sBIOScode which doesn't require frequent reprogramming. The oxideinsulating layer can be damaged by frequent rewrite. Modern-day EEPROMs can be rewritten upto a million times.I have been asked many times by users of the pocket programmer , if there is a good book that explains all the dirty little secrets about how EPROMs work. Well, it looks as if there isn'tone. So, here is my humble attempt to provide a dose of information about them.Binary refers to
is either on or off -represented as a '1' for
state) and '0' for
and are written as 00110101b (or sometimes %00110101). The 'b' stands for
andlets you know that we aren't talking about 110,101, the decimal number. A byte or multiples of bytes set the register size for microcomputers.
way of representing one
. Hexadecimal uses the digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A, B, C, D, E, F. A byte