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Microbiology, Lecture 13

Microbiology, Lecture 13

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Published by: Mohamed Harun B. Sanoh on Apr 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Sun 27/3/2011Microbiology Lec # 13Slides: (Lec 13, Epidemiology and Public Health) & (Lec 14 + 15,Microbial Pathogenesis and Virulence)Done By: Laith Jamal & Moh'd Rafay3a************************************************************************ Today, for the first part of this lecture we will talk quickly aboutepidemiology & public health, and in the second part of this lecture wewill talk about microbial pathogenesis and virulence which is the firstpart of the next time lecture enshallah.
** Lec 13, Epidemiology and Public Health **
Ok, so today we will have many definitions, so I’ll read some of themand describe the other in my words. So epidemiology can be looselydefined as the study of disease, and the people who performepidemiological studies are called epidemiologists.So these people study the factors that determine the frequency,distribution, and determinants of diseases in human populations, andalso these are the people who develop ways to prevent, control oreradicate diseases in populations. So if you have, for example,salmonella in the person, who investigates where it’s coming from andhow to control it, is epidemiologist.1
Ok, here are a few epidemiologic terminologiesA
disease is an infectious disease that can betransmitted from one person to another, whereas a
disease is a communicable disease that is easily transmitted fromperson to another. So for example common cold or influenza areconsidered contagious diseases where as for example diarrhea (notsure) is not considered as a contagious disease, it is considered to be acommunicable disease.Ok, diseases can be acquired from many sources , if the diseasesource is an animal then the net disease is called a
disease,and we also referred to zoonotic disease as zoonoses, and we will talkabout this later in this lecture.Let’s talk about a few other terms. So whenever we say
of disease that means the number of new cases that occurred in aparticular population in a particular year or a particular time period. Sowe can say there were 100 new cases for example of tuberculosis in Jordanian population in 2009.Whereas when we mentioned The
Morbidity Rate
, it is basically thesame as incidence but we refer to it as a percentage. So we can say we2
have 100 people out of 1000 people in Jordan are infected and so on.(number of cases per population number)In contrast to incidence and morbidity rate we have
. Itdivides to 2 divisions:- The period prevalence: it's the number of cases in total,whether this cases occurred in this year or in a previous time.So we can say that in 2009 for example, Jordan had 300cases of HIV. But that does not tell you that this infectionoccurred in 2009 or in a previous year.- The point prevalence: it mentions the rate of infectionthat's currently in population in a specific period of time.So we can say that every year we have 20 people get infectedin Jordan with HIV.
Mortality/death rate
: it's refers to percentage of how many peopledied due to get infected with a particular disease. So out of 100 peoplewho get the disease let's say maybe 90% of them died, so the mortalityrate will be 90%.
disease: it's the disease that happens pretty much randomlyin the population without any particular pattern, such as the tetanus.
disease: is one that is always present within the population of a particular geographic area. For example in Egypt we have Pelharsya,so Pelharsya is an Endemic disease in Egypt but its endemic in Jordan.3

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