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Borderline Personality Five-Factor Model

Borderline Personality Five-Factor Model

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Belhekar, Vivek M. & Padhye, Amruta A. Journal of psychological researches, ISSN: 00223972, Vol: 53, Issue: 2
Belhekar, Vivek M. & Padhye, Amruta A. Journal of psychological researches, ISSN: 00223972, Vol: 53, Issue: 2

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: iamquasi on Apr 28, 2011
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06/05/2014

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THEBORDERLlNEPlERSO'NALITY:EXPLORINGTHEROLEOF
,AFFECTIVEThfSTABILITYANDTHEPIVE-FA:CJlOR
MODHL
NEUROTIC[SM
lQum,alofPsychol.og'icalResearches.August2009.
Vol.
53.
No.2,
P.9'1~99
Albs,tmcm
The
pa.peT
exploresrehui"onshipofborder-line
personality
wilhaffecljy·e
i.rtuability
and
Five-FactorModel
(FFM)
neurQtix.:ism.Thedalaof217
SUI
bjec'LS(]06
male
and
1
Ufemales)wereobtainedonBP1-CtH20.affective
insLabil,j,ty
scale(AlS),
and
NEO-FPl
nellFiolkis:rrm
(FFM
Nl.
The
Iacecr
analysisofBPI,-CI.n2'Oyieldedsil1gh:
f.u:::l.or
solution.Femalesscored
hi.gher,thanmales
'an
allvariables,
whhsmalle.:ffec:t-size.TheAlSandFF'MNwere
correlatedwith
BPI-COl
'20.
The
results,
alsn
Jndicared
that
AJ,S
is
abenerpredictorofborderljne
pers,olil.aJlitythan
FFMN,a.ndhad
better
dis·crimin.anl
'1sLidiI:Y.
Theresults,
suggest
that
affective
instebjlity
lis
acorecomponentofbordeeline
pClFs,on.;aIiILY.
Inl'.ro(h:.lcliQII
TheBorderlinePersonalityDisorder
CBPD)
of
Axis
1.[
oftheDSM-IV~l'R(AmericanPsychiatricA
ssociatlon,
APA
t
200l0,
isORe
of
lfue_
~~,st
researchedpeli:sonalHydeviations(e.g.,Lm~s,
2007'),
Kernberg's
suuctural
theory
ofp'ersonaJIny
organization
differenlicnes
ILhe
Borderline~Perso-
...(D
PO·)
rromneurone
and
naluyOrganizauou~'.-
.bI·..
.at"·
ill.·eba
sis
(If
nredomma.m.
psychoticperson.
fty
an
m'.'.-.
f"-_..
~t:..
echanisms
LdenlHy
useofprlmlLiVe
'Uel,enoe..
,j;!".u~'..
d
i
Ifusion:andrelarivel
y
i
nlac;
re.ahty
m.estl.,Ilg,
..'1K·errnbe
N
advancedfaully
object
respecuve
'1.."
eo...
iI",
..,..I·..'Klein
in
t.crms
01'
relationsIdeaof
Me
anle...
...
spIimw,ng'that
ma'nil'7esl
inoscillaJ.lingpereeptiens
or
selfandethersas'ail-good'and':all-bad'
"[0
pro~cc::(
theegofrom
confiiclS"(.Kembcrg.
1911;
p.~0'1).
Linehan's(1993)'inherentoppositlens'
1010
foc1!Isesondicholomous'thinking.
'!be
:DSM-rV-lR(APt\.20
diagnosticeriierie
reprcseml
synllhes.ls
of
K,c:r-mberg(917)and
Gunderson
's
(Zallari.m~.Gundc.rsan•.
Fi3f1kcnl:u.llI'g,
Chauncey.(1939)ideas
aad
d.cnn~
BPJ[)as
"pen'
asi
vc
patternof
i
ns,tabiJi~)'Qfi.nterpers,on.31rehn
i
en-
ships..
self-,imageandaffecl.3.J:iIdmarked
iim'p\l:lsi~ry
lh,,~
beginsin
eaTI)'
adulthecd'(p,106).The
diagnostiecriteriaarefrnrll.ic
efforts
'0
avoldabandnemeae,unstableandiatenselnrerpersunalretariensbips,ideruit)'distlJ.rbances.
impuIsivilj'..
suiddaJbehaviours.affective
insl,abitiLy.
chroniC:
feeling
'of
emptiness,
difficultywithfinger.allldtl"an.sientpsychoticsym.pto,ms.Oiscourag'cd.
i,
mP1.!ils
V'C,
peLI..!I.
hun.
and
self-desirueu
IJ
e
are
conslderedas
v3.ri.atiolu
ofborderline.
persona-
I
ity.Inarecentreview.
Paris(2l001)~_gl!lGd~unBPD
isamulu...c!limensiol1lalisyndrome
Vli'lm
mullJp·le
dialflesisandh'ighsymptomlevdaadne:pce,thed.iagmosis
o,r
B·PDneeds,
Ito
bebasedon.l1;an~,wsetofcriaeria,
Though,Iaetor
anatyuc
studies
of
DSM-rV
eri~eriaforBPDshowed
Illlam
it
refleetsasliuisticaUycoherentconstruet,someresear:h,ers
argue
tllat
sub-ayping
era
PO
,onth.e~a~.I.s
~'f
numberofeeireriamelexphlinliule
vana.hoI'l
In
heterogeneuy
ill
11m
disordel
 
92
Borderline
persona
Ii
s.
afFectiyeilnstllbiHl),
andPFMN
Widiger
&.
Clllaynes
(2001)discussedvarieasissues,
in
[heassessmentofPDs
including
lhc
bordcrli,nepersonalily.TheBorderline
Persol1lalit)
r
n'Ventol)'
(B
PI;Lekhsenring.1999)"liteBorderline
Personality
Questionnaire
(llPQ~Poreb,
let
al.,
2006).DIB~R
(Zan3Jrinl,
ct
31..
1989J.
etc.are
comrnonlyused
in
theassessmentof
borderline
personality.LeicnseJilring(1999)
re.cog,[,lIsed
msurfjcicT1tdiscriminanlvalidity,high:false
positiveresults,pooragreement
wiln
semi-
structuredinterviews,etc.assome.oftheproblemsassociated'Withmeasueement,
B
D
andAffective
InsLability
The
DSM~rY-TR
(APA,2000)considers
affective
instability
asmarked
reactivityormoodlikeintenseepisodicdysphoria,lrritabiluyandaniety,
Kcrnberg
andD.Kleinrheerixed
thai
borde
rl
incpersonshaveeonsti
l
udon
a!ina
biI
i
y
toregularc
afFeclthat
makethemsusceptible
lO
psychic
disorganization
undersnrneearly
-d.irncuh
nvironrnerualeondltions.Linehan1993)
holds
[hatBPDprimarilyisaproblemofernorlonalregulalionlhal
includes
arfec~ivc
vulncrahi]
tyand
i
nabil
it)'
(0
regulateaffec
Live.
states,
l30rclcrl
lues
asenshi
e
10
broad
range
of
emotional
stimulationsandreact
quickly
anti
il1lCTlSl;ly.
According
I~p
him,
they
cannotaccurately
label
emoticnandcannot
deal
With
il
Thebiologicalfoundationof
affecLive.
insLabi.lilYisa
centrovertial
Issue
with
mixedfadings(e.g.,Herpenz,Kunert,Scnwengcr,
&
S.l.SS~
J
999).Koenigsberg.et
211.
(2002)suggestedtwo
reasons
fOT
studyinga.He-ctive
insnabililY
in
borderlines.One.toknow
-hether'affective.ins[abHity'
in
personality
disorders
leads
LO
unsteadyaffectacross
all
affectsor
only
in:
selectedones.Second"improvedcharacterizingofaffective
InstabilitywouId
helpin
differentialdiagnosisof
affectivelyunstablepersnnulitydisordersfromAxis[affectivespectrumdisorders.Thestudyof
daily
moodfluctuatiousshowedthatthe
affective
ari
abilityamong
patients,who
mel
criteriafurbPD,
was
nonrandom.suggesting
asystematic
u('ldcrlyingprocess
determining
aIfetlive
instability
(Woysln'ille,
Lackamp.Eisengart,
Gilliland.
1999)."file
BPD
patientsshowed
t-ugh
morning
toevening
ruood
v3ria1JIIIly
find
(llu.s~lt'rrandam
dls[ribu(101l
ofmerning'mood.Kooni'gsbcrg.eral,1(2002)shoWediliaL.
DI'iICe
controlledfor
other
variables"BPD
is
fOlJnd'10
relate
with
gTlcaler
lability
in'~eRrlsor
anger,anxiety,
and
osciUationbetween
depress!j.on
andaJfIxiety.Theyfoundllocenderdifferencefor
BP])
pllli<l!rIILS
i.n
the
Affective
LabilityScale
-SC-()[ies.
TheyslJrp.risinglyfoundthatexpelrience
of
increasedsubjectlve
aJfec'Liv,e
in.(ensity
wasnot
moreprominentinBPDpatlems
IIha:n
inthoseMlhotherpevscllaUtydisorders.Reviewsllaveindkatedtherelationship'ofBf'Dwith
anx.iety
disordersandarrective;proble'!'lI'Is(e.g.•Links,20(1).
KJoerugsber,g.
iH31
(2002),argued
1.1'1,31
in
spite
or
cllnicatimportanceand
theoretical
prerainenee.,thephenomenon
or
affectiveinstabilityin
:pers,orw.1ity
disorders
has
no'(beenwendescribed
(p,
784).TheFive-FactorModel
(FFM)
ofPerson-aUtyand,BerderliaePersonafity
Disorder
The
ive~FOIIctor
Model
(FFM)
basemergedas
analternarlverQbu-st
deseriptlon
ofpersonaHt.y
traitsinthe
last
lW'O
decades
of20thcenturyand
by
now
IL
h
asbeeorneacardinalpe:rsonaH't)'
appreach(e.g..McCrae.
&,
AIHk.
2.002).
Tile'Fivc-Pacrcrs
are
mosteommonlylabelledas
Neuroticism
(N).
Extraversion
I(E),
Opennessto
=.xpcricnce
(0).
Ag.I',e,tcable.lless
CAl
and
I
Consciemiousness(C)inthePPMlradhiQn.
It
drawssupponfromcross~cul[IJragen:era1izabili(yo[thePPMintermsofHsstrucusralcrganization,
ontogenesisandgenderdifferences.Indeed.
the
FFMarguethat
traits
arenotmerledescriptionsof
behavicrbut
lheycontributecau.saHytolhe
developmentof
habits,
altitud.es,
skiltsand
characteristicadaptations,Cross-enhUral
s'tut'lies,
including
Indian
work(Lodhi.DeQ,
&
Bethekar,
2002)have
pfovid1cd
aserious,
impetus
(IJ
the
model.Belhekar(2008)
discussed
Y,meH1S
iS$IIl,es
re,gardingcross-culruralresearehin
!:rail
psy'(!;hology
with
reference
to
the
FFM,Widi.gcr(1993)
initiated
thediscourseon[he;categoricald
i
gnosisofpcrsonali
t,Y
disordel'andproposedanalternative
dimensional
approachbasedon
the
FPM.Various
auihers
su,ggeSI
someagreemen
t
between
ih
e
'FFl'.land
j1Gf'ionalll.disorders
(e.g...
Widi~l:r:.20051.
hill
as
 
'~vek
M.BclhCk3Jrand
Nrfll"uta
A.
Padhyle
O)'ce(1'991).pointed
OIO't,
iLv81ries
whh
ins.trumerstat.ion,metbodofreport,and
data
,anillysis.
Dyoe(I99'7)coneludedthat.the
FFM
Nis
OI1l,e
IEIf
t'be
~mportanL
predictor
Qlf
l.heBPD_
Costa
and
Wldiger(20.0I)proposed
that
the
'FFMN
is
a
core
Itrait
underlying
the
llPD.
Livestey(200I)
sugges~ed
In.al
aborderl
i
H~:
pattern
pr~m:ari
I,y
reflecrs
abnormalitieson
broad
persoaalitydi
raenslen
measorin,gemotionalre;guIatjon.Such
,3,
dimension,
~nIheFFMframework.
irs
neurerietsrn.WJdjg'er
(1993),remarkedthattileBPD
illvr:dvesprimari,ly
excessiveelevatioaonallthefacetsofneuroucisra,
TI1,C
fRv1N
faeets
rclaun,gtoBfD
i:ndude
hostility.
irnplUlsivily
trail
anxiety,
trait
depression
and
vutncrabililY.'lNidigerand!Frances(1989)argue
ID..a'[
higll
amountofprevaJe'llce
andco-m,orbkuly
or
BPO
can
beexplained
by
conceptuafiei
ag
bordedinepetsonaliry
dlsorder
asextremeoftrailneuroticism.Widiger(1993)feels
tlhal
eo-
ro..orOtdilL),
problemsin
BPDcaabe
sorted
QUn
by
applyingthe
FF1'Vf
10
understandBPD.HefurtherarguesthatasKernberg'scone,cptofBPOcuts
acrossthe
penonalily
disorder.theFFM
neure+ic
ism
cuts
acrossimponanl
ind]...iduai
differences.Andhence,FFMNis
likelyto
assist
tnunders
ta
ndlrrg
theBPD.
The
neuroticism
conceptualizaelon
or
Costa.ant!McCrae
(i
9923,b)
is.
quu
e
clcsety
associated
whhnonspedfh:::
m.anmfeslaLions
or
BPD,
~,ike
impulseeomrol.
vulnerablfity,andam:iel)".ete,
Studies
comparin~
borderline
andnenborderline
patientson~he
~haveconcluded.
lhal
borderlines
havetiligb
scoreson
FF'M
OBuro(icism
(Zweig-Frank
&.
Paris,1995).Wilberg.
Urnes.
Friis.Pedersen
.&
Karterud(1999)foundlhalBPD~sassacjated
with
highFFM
neurolic,is,m,
parliClillarly
high
scoresonangry
hOSlilily
andimpulsivity.face~s.
NeurOticismhas
shown
maxirnam
correjauon
with
borderline.personality
incross-culLLLral
~audy
[romAfnca,Mauritjus,andSwitl.eria.nd
(Ro~sler"
RigOl;:
i,
IGmembersof
Pcrsona.I'ily
AcrossCui
LUre
ResearchGroup,2008).
Thereviewpresentsan
in'lCreSlin~
proble.m.
TheI-FM
1'I11,.·urnli
-ismandaffective
,"s.~aI"Hll1~'.
1
J
fIn"ebec
n
prop
JS~u
as
ClJfC
componcms,[
93
BPD.Theirrelativesb'ength
witl1
re.ference
tQ
BPOhtlsnom:beenc"ploredtho'roughly.,especially~n
II::),diaThepresentwork
attemptseo
umden!:W1d
mis
proble'Dlwith
IntH,an
da'la.
We'ellpe,clthat
the
,affec'l'iY·e
insralllHHy
as,
VIi',en
asFFMNw.o,uld
correla.tewell
witheach
m::her
but
afftttiveinsmbili,ty
SltU
would
rem,u'i1
abetter
correlate
ofBP'D.ME1rIOD
Partie
ipaatsThepartlclpaatsofdJlisst
udy'
are217
undergraduateandpost-:gradu.ate
slud,enls
(mean
ag~;;
i
9.40"SO
=
1.4
n
ofcolleges
and
universilY
i
nMumbai
Cilly
belon,gia,g
{IO
threefaculties.Outofthese106,aremale(meanage~19.33.SD
=
1.1:3)
andIII
are
fert'l
31
le
(meannge=19.45.S:O
=
1.48~
participants.
ToolsBorderl
i
neFe.u@n,ality
Lnven
nory-
Cut20
Scale(BPI-Ctli20).The
BPT-Cut.
20iss
loll-ii,em
true-false,self-reportinstrurnenteonsistlngofthemostdisc.rimjnalimlg20
items
ofIlheBPI
(Leicbsemic,g,
199,51).
I~is
,3,
measureaf
Borderiine
Perso(ijJ3hily
O.rganiz;ui,on.
Thescale
isbased
0111
Kernberg'sand
Gunderson's
cO[1lc,e,plor
IlFD.
Salisfa.ctoryinternal
CQnSiSlency
andtest-retest
reliabilil1
and
structuralanddiscriminant
validity
isreported
byLeichsemrin,g(H199).
Affr;;clivl:l:
lns;taiJi1itrScaleCArolS).TheAffec_tivc
InSiabilit.ysubscale-oftheBorderline.
Pemorl3llhy
Questl0mlllai[lc
(S,PQ)
:is
a
10
itemItrue-false..
self-report.inS(rumclll
to
~ess
vcdalUity
ofaffective
states(P'orch,
eL
al.,
20(6).Poreh.
em,
at.
fl§.po.rted
satisfactoryInternalc.on:sis.tencyreliabHities,
lholl..l,g.h
somecnltural
varja~iClJIl
across
meaa
levelshasbeenobserved.
NEGFive-Faetor
Inventory
Neu
eetielsm
Sca"h:
(NEO-FF~
N).
Tbe
Neuroticism
scaleof'lhe
NE.o~
PA
is12-1tlem
5-poiml
L'ikmt-m:ypescale
(Cos~a
&
McCrae,1992.a).The
scale
assessesthe
mra~t
ofneuroticism
concrepJlludiliOO
intermso:f
a.n:u,cty,
angry-hoslil,ity,
impL11si~Des~,
vulnel"abiJiLy.
etc.
Quitea
[t:;'i!i'
Indianstudieshavereported
,'aJ:idIlY
or
thescale(Lodhi.Deo,
&;
Bdhekru-.
2002~
~tc)

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