International Geothermal Conference, Reykjavík, Sept. 2003
Factors influencing the economics of the Kalinapower cycle and situations of superior performance
Prof. Pall Valdimarsson,
Dr. Scient. Ing, Professor, University of IcelandEmail: email@example.com
Dipl.–Ing. Mach, MBA; Marketing Manager of X-Orka ehf Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Kalina technology has its advantages and disadvantages. Those in favor phrase itlike new godsend while the opponents see in it only difficulties and additionalcomplexity. The Kalina cycle is a power cycle and does as such compete with Rankine,Brayton, Diesel and Otto cycles. All theses cycles have their advantages anddisadvantages and they are all a theoretical description of real-world machinery. Sincethe Kalina cycle is fully described in its physical values and material properties then weare able to compare it theoretically with other processes for different boundaryconditions (in real life, energy situations). Accumulated cost-knowledge and operationalexperience, enables us to compare the real life performance of these cycles for a typicalgeothermal condition, that is source inlet and outlet temperatures and cooling fluidtemperatures. The areas of superiority for the Kalina cycle are then presented.
geothermal, Kalina, efficiency, cost.
The second law of thermodynamics binds the conversion efficiency of lowtemperature heat into work or electricity. In addition to that, the conversion of heatfrom a heat source with a finite heat capacity has a lower upper bound for theefficiency due to the reduction of the source temperature as heat is removed from thesource. This results in high cost for such low temperature power plants, as they haveto handle large heat flows in order to produce acceptable power.The Kalina cycle is a novel approach to increase this efficiency. The main benefitof the Kalina cycle is that the heat addition to the process happens at a variabletemperature, and can thus be fitted to the falling temperature of a heat source with afinite heat capacity, reducing the generation of entropy in the heat exchange with theprimary fluid. The temperature range for the boiling process of the ammonia-watermixture in the Kalina process may be as high as 100°C.An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is an alternative to the Kalina cycle and hasfound widespread use. There the boiling of the secondary fluid happens at a constanttemperature, meaning that the vapour for the turbine in the process has relatively lowtemperature compared to the Kalina process.The adoption of the Kalina cycle to a certain heat source and a certain coolingfluid sink has one degree of freedom more than the ORC cycle, as the ammonia-watercomposition can be adjusted as well as the system high and low pressure levels.This paper presents calculations of the installed cost of power plants, both forKalina and ORC cycles. These calculations are based on cost models from X-OrkaLtd., calibrated with data from tenders to the Husavik power plant in northern Iceland.The Kalina cycle was selected for the Husavik plant. In their paper R. Maack andP. Valdimarsson (2002) give an overview of the operating experience of the power
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