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NASA Facts TIROS

NASA Facts TIROS

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Published by Bob Andrepont

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Apr 29, 2011
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(B-2-64)
NASA
FACTS
An
Educational
Services
Publication
of
the
National
Aeronautics
and
Space
Administration
Page
1
TIROS
25013
&JA
32-
RECEIVING ANTENNA
BATTERIES
WIDE-ANGLE
TV
CAMERA #1
TAPE
TRANSPORT
The TlROS
weather
satellite.
Carla
...
Donna
...
Esther
...
Flora
...
These
weredestructive hurricanes which
took
thousands
of
lives
and
caused
millions
of
dollars
in
damage.
Future
counterparts, with
other
feminine names,
will surely be
as
severe,
but their
destructive
re-sults
will
be
minimized
because
peoplewill
be
-------------------
forewarned through information
gathered
by
meteorological
satellites in
space,
taking
pictures
of
the
earth's
surface
and cloud
cover.
Such
warningshaveenabled people
in
the
hurricane
belt
to prepare
themselves
for
high winds and
water,
and
thus
to
spare
lives
and property.
Such
wasthe
case
with
Carla
-------
--------------------------------
--
-
 
Page 2
The
NASA
weather
satellite
program
whichcan
detect hurricanes
in
their
formative
stages,
and provide
a
great
deal
of
other
information
useful
to
meteorologists
is
carried
out
with
TIROS.This
satellitename
is
an
acronym
for
Television
Infrared Observation
Satellite.
Kites,
balloon,
airplanes
and
sounding
rockets
have been
used
to gather weather
data
from
varying
distances
above
the
earth's
surface,
with
results
that
were
effective-sometimes
even
star-
tling.
But TIROS can
go
higher, stay
aloft
much
longer,
and
perform
tasks
never
before
possible
of
accomplishment.
TIROS
orbits
atabout
450
miles
above
the earth,
takes
its
pictures
with
vidicon
(TV)
apparatus
and
transmits the
m
to
earth
for
interpretationby
meteorologists.
In
addition,
TIROS has
equipment
for
detecting
and
reporting
infrared
radiation
reflected
by
the
earth's
atmosphere.
DEFINITIONS
(Quoted
from
the
NASA
publication
SP-l,
Short
Glossary of Space
Terms)
ACQUISITION
-the
process
oflocatingthe orbit
ofa
satellite or trajectory of
a
space
probe
so
that
trackingor
telemetry
data
canbe
gathered.
Also,
the
processof
pointing
an antenna
ortelescope
so
that
itis
properly
oriented to allow
gatheringof
tracking or telemetry
data
from a
satellite or
space
probe
.
APOGEE-in
an
orbit
about
the
earth,
the point
at
which
thesatellite
is
farthest
from
theearth; the
high
est altitudereached
by
a
sounding
rocket.
AXIS-a
straight
line
about
which a
body
rotates,
or
around
which
a
plane
figure
may rotate to produce
a
solid;
a
lineof
symmetry
.Also,
one
of
a
set
of ref
erence
linesfor
certain
systems
of
coordinates.
COMMANO-a
signal
whichinitiates
or
triggers
an
action
in
the
device
which
receives
the
signal.
ELECTRON
-the
subatomic
part
i
cle
that
possesses
the
smallest
known
electric
charge.
INFRARED
-Infrared
radiation;electromagnetic
radia
tion
in
the
wavelength
interval from
the
red
end
of
thevisible
spectrum
on
the lower
limit to
microwa"es
used
in
radar
on theupper
limit.
PERIGEE-that
orbital point
nearest
the
earth
whenthe
earth
is
the center of
attraction.
READOUT
-the
action
of
a
radiotransmitter
transmit
ting
data
either instantaneously
with
the
acquisition
ofthe
data
or
by
play of
a
magnetic
tape
upon
which the
data
have been recorded
.
TELEMETRY
-the
science
of
measuring
a
quantity
orquantities,
transmitting
the measured value
to
a
distant
station,
and
there
i
nterpreting,
indicating,
or
recording
the quantities measured
.
(NASA
FACTS
8-2-64)
TIROS I
waslaunched
at
Cape
Canaveral
(now Cape
Kennedy)
on
April
1,
1960,
by
a
Thor-Able launch
vehicle.
Successor
TIROS
satellites have
followed:
TlROS
"
through
VIII.
Others are
scheduled.
Operating
in
a
near-circular
orbit
more than
400
miles
above
the earth
(apogee,
461
miles,
perigee,
436
miles) TIROS I
made
meteorological
history
by
giving
meteorologists an
unprecedented
opportunity
to study
the
earth's claud
patternsand
relatethem
to
theweather.
Among
the
strik
ingpatterns
seen
for
the
first time
in
their entirety
TI
ROS
has
various
sensors,
or sensingelements,
which"
sense"
information
and
convert
itinto
signals
which
can be measured.
These
includetwo
TV
cameras
to
photographcloud
cover; a multi-channel
scanning
radi
ometer
to
observe water
vapor,
night clouds,
reflected
sunshine
,
emitted
heat and
loudresolution cloud map
ping;
andnon-scanning radiometersto measure
total
radiation
and
thermalradiation
 
(NASA
FACTS
8-2-64)
..
were
large-scale
cyclones
with
spiral bands
some
times
covering
areas
a
thousand
miles across.
Photographstransmitted
by
the satellite's
two
television cameras also
indicated
the
presence
of
jet streams(currents
of
air
blowing at
speeds
of
200
milesan
hour
or
more,
at
high
altitudes)
re
gions
of
moist
and
dry
air,
thunderstorms,
weatherfronts
,
and
many
types
of
cloudpatterns.
TIROS
I
stopped transmitting
about
midnight
of
June
29,
1960,
after
1,302
orbits
of
the
earth,
when
its
power
supplyfailed.
It
had
transmitted
22,592
pictures
.
HURRICANE
DETECTION
What
daes
early
detection
of
a
hurricane mean
in
terms
of
saving
lives?
Page
3
Information
from
TIROS
III
in
September
of
1961
gavewarning
of
HurricaneCarla
in
timeto
make possible
the
largest
mass
evacuation
ever
to
take
place
in
the United
States.
More
than
350,000
people fled from
the
path
of
the storm
and
a
relatively
small
number
of
deaths
was
attributable
to
Carla
as
it
swept
across the
country.
PresidentLyndon
B.
Johnson, when
he was
Vice
President
and
chairman
of
the
National
Aero
nautics
and
Space Council, estimated the
follow
ing
national
cost
savings,
based
on the accurate
predictions
of
weather
only
five
days
in
advance
include:
$2.5
billion
a
year to agriculture.
$45
million
to
the
lumber
industry.
$100
million
to
surface
transportation.
$75
million
to
retailmarketing.
$4
billion
in
water
resources
management.
TIROS III HURRICANE
DATA
ANNA
BETSY
CARLA
DEBBIE
ESTHER
Pictures
of
hurr
icanes
token
by
TIROS.
,
_____________________
..
_________________________________________
--==-
________
__-
-----
---
-
--
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