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Facilitating Learning

Facilitating Learning

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Published by Rex Galang

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Published by: Rex Galang on Apr 29, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/04/2015

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John Flavell Metacognition consist of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitiveexperience.Person variables - This includes how one views himself as a learner and thinker.Knowledge about how humanTask Variables – includes knowledge about the nature of the task as well as type of  processing demands it will place upon the individual.Strategy Variables – Knowledge of strategy variables involves awareness of strategy youare using to learn a topic and evaluating whether this strategy is effective.Meta attention – awareness of SPECIFIC STRATEGIES SO THAT YOU CAN KEEPYOUR ATTENTION FOCUSEDON THE TOPIC OR TASK AT HANDMetamemory – Awareness of memories strategies that work best for youMetacognition – Highest level of thinkingExpert learners - Employed metacognitive strategies in learning Novice learners – Have limited knowledge in different subject areas.14 psychological principles are divided intoa. cognitive and metacognitive b. motivational and affectivec. developmental and sociald. invidual differenceCognitive and metacognitive facotrs1. Nature of learning processThe learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of on constructing meaning form information and experience2. Goals of the learning processThe successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance andcreate meaningful, coherent representation of knowledge.3. Construction of knowledgeThe successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge inmeaningful ways.4. Strategic thinkingThe successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoningstrategies to achieve complex learning goals.
 
5. Thinking about thinkinghigher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operation facilitatecreative and critical thinking6. Context of learningLearning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology,and instructional practicesMotivational and affective factors7. Motivational and emotional influences on learningWhat and how much is learned is influenced by the learner’s motivation.Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual’s emotional states, beliefs,interest and goals, and habits of thinking .8. Intrinsic motivation to learnthe learner’s creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contributeto motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by task of optimal novelty anddifficulty, relevant to personal interests and providing for personal choice and interest9. Effects of motivation on effortAcquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effortsand guided practice. Without learners, motivation to learn, the willingness to exert thiseffort in unlikely without coercion.Developmental and social factor 10. Developmental influences on learningAs individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account.11. Social Influences of learningLearning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, andcommunications with others.Individual differences factors12. Individual differences in learningLearners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning thatare a function of prior experience and heredity.13 Learning and diversityLearning is most effective when differences in learner’s linguistic, cultural, andsocial background are taken into account.
 
14 Standards and assessmentsSetting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner aswell as learning progress – including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment – areintegral parts of the learning process.Part 2Jean Piaget- cognitive theory of development – how individual constructs knowledge.Piagetian task – a research method involved observing small number of individuals asthey responded to cognitive task that has designed.Genetic epistemology - Piaget general theoretical framework Interested in how knowledge developed in human organismBasic Cognitive ConceptsSchema - refer to cognitive structure by w/c individuals intellectually adapt to andorganize their environment.Ex. If a child see’sa dog for the first time, he creates his own idea what adog isAssimilation – Process of fitting its new experience into an existing or previous schemaEx. If the child sees another dog and it is smaller one he is adding newschema of a dogAccommodation - a process of creating a new schemaEx. If a child sees now another animal that looks kike little bit like a dog, but somehow a different height try fit it into a his schema of adogEquilibration – proper balance of assimilation and accommodationCognitive disequilibrium experience not match to schemata or cognitive sstructurePiaget’s Stages of Cognitive developmentStage 1 Sensori – motor stage – first stage corresponds from birth to infancy.Ex. Child is gasping sucking reaching more organizedObject permanence – This is the ability of the child to know that an object stillexist even without sight

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