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Appl 20 Motor Protection En

Appl 20 Motor Protection En

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Published by: sanjeewa12 on Apr 29, 2011
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Siemens PTDEA · ApplicationsforSIPROTECProtectionRelays · 2005
1. Introduction
Drive motors often play a decisive role in thefunctioning of a production process. Motor dam-age and breakdowns not infrequently lead also toconsequential damage and production shutdowns,the cost of which significantly exceeds the cost of repairing the motor. Optimum design of the mo-tor protection ensures that damage followingthermal overload is prevented, meaning that thereis no reduction to the normal service life. Second-ary faults are minimized in the event of short-circuits, earth faults and winding faults.The spectrum extends from small low-voltagemotors with an output of a few kW to high-voltage motors with outputs measured in MW.Protection system design must be based on therating of the motor, the importance of the drivefor the technological process, the operating condi-tions and the requirements of the motor manufac-turer.The setting of a SIPROTEC protection relay formotor protection is described below taking ahigh-voltage motor (10 kV) as the example.
2. The tasks of motor protection
Motors have some striking features in their oper-ating conditions. These are important for under-standing the various possible causes of failure andmust be taken into account when designing pro-tection systems.
2.1 Protection of the stator against thermal overload 
The power drawn by the motor from the supply system during operation is supplied to the shaft asmechanical power for the production machine.The power lost to the winding during this energy conversion is the decisive factor for the arisingmotor temperatures. The loss of heat is propor-tional to the square of the current. The motorheating time characteristic is determined by itsheat storage capability and heat transfer proper-ties, and characterized by the thermal time con-stant [
]. Electrical machines are at particular riskfrom long-term overload. Thermal overloading of the motor leads to damage to the insulation andtherefore to secondary faults or to a reduction inthe total service life of the motor.Such overloading cannot and should not be de-tected by short-circuit protection since any poten-tial delay must be very short on these occasions.Overload protection prevents thermal overloadingof the motor to be protected. The 7SJ602 relay de-tects stresses either before overload occurs (over-load protection with complete memory = thermalreplica) or only after exceeding a preset start-upcurrent (overload protection without memory function).
Overload protection without memory If overload protection without memory is cho-sen, the tripping time is calculated according toa simple formula. Pre-stressing is not taken intoaccount because currents are only recorded if they are greater than 1.1 times the set value.
( / )
> 1.1
Tripping time
Overload current
Set threshold
Set time factor(t6-time = tripping time when applying 6 timesthe actual set value
SIPROTEC 7SJ602multifunctionprotection
       L       S       P       2       7       3       1 .      t       i       f
SiemensPTDEA · ApplicationsforSIPROTECProtectionRelays · 2005
Overload protection with memory The relay calculates the temperature rise in ac-cordance with a thermal homogenous-body model and a thermal differential equation. Inthis way the previous load, with all load cycles,can be recorded and evaluated correctly by therelay. Such a thermal replica can be optimally adapted to the overload capacity of the pro-tected equipment.
2.2 Protection of the rotor from thermal overload 
Among the many causes of excessive temperaturescaused by currents in motors is an unacceptably long start-up time or, in limit cases, blocking of the rotor. Such conditions are caused by an exces-sive mechanical load torque, such as can occur inoverfilled mills and breakers or overloaded centri-fuges, etc.
Start-up time monitoringThe protection relay has start-time monitoring,which represents a meaningful addition to over-load protection for electrical machines. The triptime depends on the current. This enables evenextended start-up times to be correctly evalu-ated when the start-up current is reduced be-cause of voltage sags when the engine is started.The start-up time monitoring begins when a setcurrent level is exceeded. The trip time dependson the actual measured start-up current. If thepermissible locked rotor time is shorter than thestart-up time, the rotational speed (motor sta-tionary or rotating) must also be requested via abinary input.
Restart inhibitRestart inhibit prevents the motor restarting if,during this start-up, the permissible rotor heat-ing is expected to be exceeded.The rotor temperature of a motor generally lieswell below its permitted temperature limit bothduring normal operation and with increasedload currents. On the other hand, duringstart-up, with the associated high start-up cur-rents, the rotor is at a higher risk of thermaldamage than the stator because of its smallerthermal time constant. The motor must be pre-vented from switching on if the permissible ro-tor heating is expected to be exceeded duringthis start-up. This is the task of the restart in-hibit. Because the rotor current is not directly measurable, stator currents must be relied uponfrom which the rotor temperature is indirectly calculated. It is therefore assumed that the ther-mal limit values for the rotor winding in thedata provided by the motor manufacturer forthe rated start-up current equal the maximumpermitted start-up time and the number of thepermitted start-ups from cold (n
) and operat-ing temperature (n
) conditions. The relay cal-culates from this the value of the thermal rotorreplica and gives a blocking command until thethermal replica of the rotor reaches a value be-low the restart limit and therefore permits a newstart-up. As long as a blocking command pre-vails, switching on by the relay’s integratedswitch control is prevented. In this case, it is notnecessary to allocate the restart inhibit’s block-ing command to a command relay or an exter-nal link with the switch control. If however themotor can be switched on from another posi-tion, an output relay must be allocated to theblocking command and its contact looped intothe starting circuit.
2.3 Negative-sequence protection
In protection of the motor, negative sequence(unbalanced load) protection assumes particularimportance. Unbalanced loads produce a reversefield in motors which drives the rotor at twice thefrequency. Eddy currents are induced on the sur-face of the rotor, leading to local temperature risesin the rotor. If the motor is protected by fuses, aphase voltage failure is a frequent fault in practice.During this breakdown, the line-to-line voltage isfed to the stator winding by the remaining work-ing phases. Depending on the load, a more or lesscircular rotating field is maintained by the motor,so that it can develop sufficient torque with in-creased current input. There is also the risk of thermal overload if the system voltage is unbal-anced. Even small voltage unbalances can lead tolarge negative sequence currents because of thesmall negative sequence reactance.
Siemens PTDEA · ApplicationsforSIPROTECProtectionRelays · 2005
The 7SJ602’s negative-sequence protection filtersthe fundamental out of the fed phase currents andbreaks it down into balanced components (nega-tive phase-sequence system
and positive phase-sequence system
). The “negative phase-sequencesystem/rated current (
)” relationship is as-sessed to detect the unbalanced load. The nega-tive-sequence protection is set up in two stages.After reaching a first, adjustable threshold
> atime stage
>is started; after reaching a second,adjustable threshold
>> the time stage
>> isstarted. After one of the operating times haspassed a tripping command is set up. The thresh-old comparison can only be made if the largest of the three phase currents is at least 10 % of therated current.
2.4 Earth-fault protection
When designing earth-fault protection it is impor-tant to know how the star point of the power sup-ply system is connected. This must also be takeninto account when selecting protection relay hard-ware. Two versions of the 7SJ602 are available,differing in the design of the transformer inputs.7SJ6021../7SJ6025.. for low-resistance earthedpower systemsThe relay has a fourth input transformer with“normal” sensitivity for recording the earth cur-rent. This can be connected to the star point leadwire of the current transformer unit or to a sepa-rate core-balance current transformer.7SJ6022../7SJ6026.. for resonant-earthed, isolatedor high-resistance earthed power systemsThe relay has two phase current transformers, asensitive earth current input and a voltage input,e.g. to record
Characteristicsofthe negativesequence protec-tion
Connection of4CTswithmeasurement ofthe earthcurrent
Connection of3CTsand1VTwithmeasurement ofthe earthcurrentandonephase voltage

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