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Table Of Contents

List of abbreviations
1.1 Straw
1.2 Straw as a fuel
1.3 Technologies for co-firing
1.3.1 Grate co-firing with biomass
1.3.2 Pulverized fuel co-firing with biomass
1.3.3 Fluidized bed co-firing with biomass
1.4 Problems related with straw, co-combustion issues
1.5 Distributed CHP plants
1.7 Motivation and scope of the dissertation
1.8 Methodology
2.1 Alkali metals, S and Cl in straw and coal
2.3 Possible alkali getters
2.3.1 Kaolin
2.3.2 Co-combustion with coal and sequestering of alkalis
2.4 Conclusions and research requirements
3.1 Introduction - investigation of alkali metals in combustion systems
3.2 Combustion facility - CFB reactor
3.3.1 ELIF limitations and consideration of errors
3.3.2 Optical access
3.3.3 Laser excitation and fluorescence detection
3.4 Experimental techniques
3.4.1 Fuels and CFBC tests
3.5 Results
3.6 Discussion
3.6.1 ELIF campaigns
3.6.2 SEM/EDS analysis of the particles
4.1.2 Standard Enthalpy of Reaction
4.1.3 Standard Enthalpy of Formation
4.1.4 Activation Energy
4.1.5 Spontaneous Reaction
4.1.6 Energy and Spontaneity
4.1.7 Entropy
4.1.8 The Gibbs free energy
4.1.9 Entropy and Chemical Reactions
4.1.10 Temperature dependence of the Gibbs free energy
4.1.11 Standard-State Free Energy of Formation
4.2 Chemical Equilibrium Definitions
4.2.1 The Equilibrium Constant
4.2.2 Free Energy Changes and Equilibrium Constants
4.2.3 A General Approach to Gibbs free energy
4.2.4 Gibbs Energy Minimization
4.3 Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations - approach
4.4 Results
4.5 Discussion
4.6 Conclusions
Fundamental investigation of KCl - kaolin interactions
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Experimental
5.2.1 Thermogravimetric reactor
5.2.2 Sample holder
5.2.3 Samples and experimental conditions
5.3 Results and discussion
5.3.1 Evaporation of KCl
5.3.2 Morphology investigation with SEM
5.3.3 Elemental composition of samples
5.4 Conclusions
6.1 Conclusions
6.1.1 Experimental work
6.1.2 Modelling work
6.2 Recommendations
6.2.1 Experimental work
6.2.2 Modelling work
References
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Experimental apparatus
A.3 Results and discussion
A.4 Conclusions
Alkali sampling on pilot scale CFB
B.1 Introduction
B.2 Problem outline
B.3 Problem solving
B.4 Conclusions
D.2 Results
D.3 Discussion
Summary
Selected Publications
Curriculum Vitae
Acknowledgments
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Alkali Metals in Combustion of Biomass With Coal

Alkali Metals in Combustion of Biomass With Coal

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Published by Pedro Mateus

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Published by: Pedro Mateus on Apr 29, 2011
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04/29/2013

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