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TNO, CCR 01318 Application of Correlations to Quantify the Source Strength

TNO, CCR 01318 Application of Correlations to Quantify the Source Strength

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TNO report 
PML 1998-C53
Lange Kleiweg 137P.O. Box 452280 AA
RijswijkThe NetherlandsPhone +31 15
284 28 42Fax +31 15 284 39 58All rights reserved.No part of this publication may bereproduced and/or published by print,photoprint, microfilm or any other meanswithout the previous written consent ofTNO.In case this report was drafted oninstructions, the rights and obligations ofcontracting parties are subject to either theStandard Conditions for ResearchInstructions given to TNO, or the relevantagreement concluded between thecontracting parties.Submitting the report for inspection toparties who have a direct interest ispermitted.
1998 TNO
TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory
Application of correlations to quantify thesource strength of vapour cloud explosionsin realistic situations.Final report for the project: ‘GAMES’
October 1998
W.P.M. MercxA.C. van den BergD. van Leeuwen
Air Liquide, FranceBP International Ltd, United KingdomENEL Spa CRIS, ItalyElf Atochem, FranceGaz de France, FranceHealth and Safety Executive, United KingdomICI, United KingdomINERIS, FranceNorsk Hydro, NorwayRIVM, The NetherlandsSnamprogetti SpA, Italy
Report text:
Company Confidential
Annexes A - G:
Company Confidential
No. of pages:
(incl. annexes,excl. documentation page)
No. of annexes:
All information which is classified according to Dutch regulations shall be treated bythe recipient in the same way as classified information of corresponding value in hisown country. No part of this information will be disclosed to any party.The classification designation Ongerubriceerd is equivalent to Unclassified.
TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory is part ofTNO Defence Research which further consists of:TNO Physics and Electronics LaboratoryTNO Human Factors Research InstituteNetherlands Organization forApplied Scientific Research (TNO)
TNO report
PML 1998-C533
Correlations were derived in the preceding GAME project to quantify the sourcestrength of a vapour cloud explosion required to apply the Multi-Energy Methodfor the determination of blast characteristics. The correlations relate a set of para-meters describing the obstacle configuration in which the flammable cloud ispresent and the fuel, to a single value for the overpressure in the exploding vapourcloud.This project investigates the difficulties and problems encountered while applyingthe correlations to a number of realistic scenarios. The objective is to provideguidance and recommendations on how to overcome these difficulties and todecide on the actual values to be chosen for the parameters of the correlations inspecific situations. The emphasis is on the determination of the parameters: ‘Volu-me Blockage Ratio’ and ‘Average Obstacle Diameter’.The main finding is that a safe approach in most situations is to apply the procedu-re of the new Yellow Book for the determination of the volume of the obstructedregion in combination with the hydraulic average obstacle diameter and a flamepath length equal to the radius of a hemisphere with a volume equal to the volumeof the obstructed region.Lack of experimental data on specific items prevents the generation of more detai-led guidance. Some guidance is developed based on a theoretical approach, toassess the influence of the aspect ratio of the obstructed region and to quantify theseparation distance between multiple explosion sources. It is recommended toperform an experimental research programme to generate the required data toimprove and validate the suggested procedures.

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