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Marine Biology 4th Ed - P. Castro, M. Huber Hill, 2003)

Marine Biology 4th Ed - P. Castro, M. Huber Hill, 2003)

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Oceanografia Biológica
Oceanografia Biológica

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Castro−Huber: MarineBiology, Fourth EditionFront MatterPreface
© The McGraw−HillCompanies, 2003
viii
p r e f a c e
ther because the course is not intended tosatisfy general education requirements orbecause students already have some scien-tific background. To balance the needs of instructors teaching courses with and without prerequisites in basic biology orother sciences, we have designed thebook to provide as much flexibility aspossible in the amount of basic sciencecoverage, the order in which topics arepresented, and in overall emphasis andapproach. We have tried to meet theneeds and expectations of a wide variety of students, from the humanities major who likes to go fishing to the biology major considering a career in marine sci-ence. We also hope that a variety of read-ers other than university students find thebook useful and enjoyable.Another feature of 
 Marine Biology,
fourth edition, is its
 global, non-regional  perspective.
 That the world’s oceans andseas function as a vast integrated system isamong the most important messages of our book. For many students this is a new perspective. One aspect of our global ap-proach is the deliberate inclusion of exam-ples from many different regions andecosystems so that as many students aspossible will find something relevant totheir local areas or places they have vis-ited. We hope this will stimulate them tothink about the many relationships be-tween their own shores and the one worldocean that so greatly influences our lives.
CHANGES IN THEFOURTH EDITION
Perhaps the most significant changes inthis edition of 
 Marine Biology
involve the
treatment of microorganisms.
 We haveadopted an increasingly accepted three-domain classification system that consid-ers bacteria and archaea to be as differentfrom each other as they are from eukary-otic organisms. An entire chapter, Chap-People around the world are fascinatedand inspired by marine life. With theglobal trend of migration to the coast, thegrowth of such pastimes as scuba diving,recreational fishing, and aquarium keep-ing, and the increasing accessability of travel to exotic seaside destinations, morepeople than ever before are able to experi-ence firsthand the sea’s beauty, mystery,and excitement. Even those not lucky enough to do so can learn about the life of the ocean not only through the many excellent film and television documen-taries and photo essays that are available,but more and more over the Internet, where one can now follow the day-by-day progress of research expeditions, listen to whale songs, or view underwater scenes inreal time. Partly as a result of this, aware-ness of human impacts on the oceans andof the importance of the oceans to our af-fairs continues to grow. This interest inthe oceans is reflected in the continuingpopularity of marine biology and relatedsubjects in high schools, colleges and uni- versities, and adult education programs. While keeping in mind the range of potential users of this text, we have writ-ten it primarily for lower-division, non-science majors at colleges and universities. These students may enroll in marine biol-ogy not only out of personal interest in thesubject, but also to fulfill a general sciencerequirement. Many will take no other col-lege science course. We have made a spe-cial effort to include the solid basic sciencecontent needed in a general educationcourse, including fundamental principlesof biology, the physical sciences, and thescientific method. Our general aim was tointegrate this basic science content with astimulating, up-to-date overview of ma-rine biology. We hope this approachdemonstrates the relevance of the physicalsciences to biology and makes the study of all sciences less intimidating.At the same time, we recognize thatgeneral science content will not beneeded in all marine biology courses, ei-ter 5, is now devoted to microorganismsin recognition of the growing evidence of the importance of these organisms in theocean. New and updated information onthe role of microorganisms and viruses inthe marine environment is presented inseveral other chapters.As in previous editions we have up-dated the text to reflect
recent events, newresearch, and changes in perspective.
 Thefourth edition presents new informationon phylogenetics, nucleic acid sequenc-ing, molecular adaptations to pressure indeep-sea organisms, the feeding habits of  whales, bioturbation, endangered marinespecies, the global effects of marine pol-lution and toxic algal blooms on humanhealth, hydrothermal vents, invasivespecies, and many other topics. The cov-erage of salt marshes and mangroves, sea-grass beds, and competing hypotheses toexplain the structure of coral-reef fishcommunities has been expanded. Thereare new boxed readings on symbiotic bac-teria, the use of nucleic acid sequencingin studying marine life, and the diversity of the deep-sea benthos. As in previouseditions we have updated facts and fig-ures, corrected errors, and reorganizedsome sections to provide more balancedcoverage and improve the logical se-quence. At the request of several review-ers, we have slightly raised the level of thetext while being careful to preserve theinformal writing style that our readers tellus they enjoy. We have continued to improve theart program with many new or revised il-lustrations and photographs, and the in-terior design has again been improved tomake better use of space and improvereadability. The home page for
 Marine Biology
continues to develop and thefourth edition more than previous edi-tions has been written with the opportu-nities for online learning specifically inmind. The home page can be found at: www.mhhe.com/marinebiology (click onthis book’s cover).
 
Castro−Huber: MarineBiology, Fourth EditionFront MatterPreface
© The McGraw−HillCompanies, 2003
Preface 
ix
ORGANIZATION
 Marine Biology
is organized into fourparts. Part 1 (Chapters 1 through 3) in-troduces students to marine biology andrelated fields of science. Chapter 1 de-scribes the history of marine biology. Italso covers the fundamentals of the scien-tific method, which are essential in un-derstanding the workings of science. Thisfeature presents science as a process, anongoing human endeavor. We believe itis important for students to realize thatscience does have limitations and thatthere is still much to be learned. Chapters2 and 3 present basic material in marinegeology, physics, and chemistry.
 Marine Biology
includes more information onthese subjects than other texts, but wekept Chapters 2 and 3 as short as possi-ble. Wherever possible, physical andchemical aspects of marine environmentare discussed in the chapters where they are most relevant to the biology. Waverefraction, for example, is covered inconjunction with intertidal communities(Chapter 11), estuarine circulation is dis-cussed as part of the ecology of estuaries(Chapter 12), and upwelling is covered with the epipelagic zone (Chapter 15). This approach provides the general sci-ence coverage that some instructorsneed, but allows those who don’t to usethese chapters for background reference.It also emphasizes the importance of thephysical and chemical environment tothe organisms of the sea. Like the rest of the book, Chapters 2 and 3 include orig-inal world maps that were drawn usingthe Robinson projection to minimizedistortion. The exciting nature of life in the seais the subject of Part 2 (Chapters 4through 9). Chapter 4, “Some Basics of Biology,” is a brief introduction to basicbiology aimed at students with a limitedbackground in biology. As with the fun-damentals of geological, physical, andchemical oceanography, basic biologicalconcepts are reviewed throughout thebook in “In-text Glossary.” Because themost important material is reviewed inthese boxes, Chapter 4 may be omitted if students have an adequate background inbasic biology. Chapters 5 through 9 sur- vey the major groups of marine organismsfrom the perspective of organismal biol-ogy. As in the first part of the book, weprovide introductory information that isreviewed and expanded upon in futurechapters. In discussing the various groupsof organisms, we emphasize functionalmorphology, outstanding ecological andphysiological adaptations, and economicimportance or significance to humanity.Classification and phylogeny are notstressed, although a general classificationscheme is presented in graphical form atthe beginning of each chapter. Here andthroughout the book we selected organ-isms from around the world for illustra-tion in photographs, line drawings, andcolor paintings, but organisms from thecoasts of North America are emphasized.Organisms are referred to by their most widely accepted common names; one ortwo common or important genera arenoted in parentheses the first time a groupis mentioned in a chapter, but we havenot attempted to be comprehensive inlisting genera. Indeed, at the suggestion of reviewers we have reduced the number of genera that are listed to make the text eas-ier to read. Nomenclature follows for themost part the FAO Species Catalog andSpecies Identification Guides for groupscovered by these references. The third and most extensive part(Chapters 10 through 16) constitutes theheart of the book. The first chapter of this section (Chapter 10) introducessome fundamental principles of ecology.As in Chapter 4, important conceptspresented here are reviewed elsewhere inthe In-text Glossary boxes. In the re-maining six chapters of Part 3, we de-scribe the major environments of the world ocean, proceeding from nearshoreto offshore and from shallow to deep water. This sequence is admittedly arbi-trary but conforms to the teaching se-quence followed by the greatest numberof our reviewers. The chapters, however,are designed so that they can be coveredin any sequence according to instructors’preferences and needs. The basic themesare adaptation to the physical constraintsof the environment and the interactionof organisms within the environment.Most chapters include generalized food webs that follow a standardized schemeof color coding to indicate the nature of the trophic relationships. The final part of the book looks atthe many ways that humans interact withthe world ocean: the use of resources, ourimpact on the marine environment, andthe influence of the ocean on culture andthe human experience. These chapterspresent an up-to-date, comprehensive view of issues and concerns shared by many students. The chapter on resourceutilization (Chapter 17) looks not only attraditional uses such as fisheries andmariculture, but also at more modernaspects such as the pharmacological useof marine natural products and the appli-cation of genetic engineering to mari-culture. In Chapter 18, a discussion of human-induced degradation of the ma-rine environment is balanced by an ex-amination of the conservation andenhancement of the marine environment. The book closes with an essay on the im-pact of the ocean on human affairs(Chapter 19) that we hope will stimulatestudents to reflect on the past and futuresignificance of the world ocean.
TEACHING ANDLEARNING AIDS
Because courses vary in content and se-quence,
 Marine Biology
 was designed tobe a flexible and efficient teaching aid.Chapters are written as short, readily ab-sorbed units to increase instructors’ flexi-bility in selecting topics. It is not assumedthat instructors will follow the order in which material is presented in the book.For this reason, we provide an
In-textGlossary 
that briefly explains key termsand concepts from other chapters. Someare illustrated by line drawings. Each boxrefers to the chapter and page where theconcept is explained if more detailed in-formation is needed. We hope this fea-ture reduces the distraction of searchingthe index for unfamiliar terms.

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