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P. 1
MB0044 Set 1

MB0044 Set 1

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Published by Piyush Varshney

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Published by: Piyush Varshney on Apr 29, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Q1. Explain in brief the origins of Just In Time. Explainthe different types of wastes that can be eliminatedusing JITAns.
Just in Time (JIT) is a management philosophy aimed ateliminating waste and continuously improving quality. Creditfor developing JIT as a management strategy goes to Toyota. Toyota JIT manufacturing started in the aftermath of WorldWar II.Although the history of JIT traces back to Henry Ford whoapplied Just in Time principles to manage inventory in theFord Automobile Company during the early part of the 20thCentury, the origins of the JIT as a management strategytraces to Taiichi Onho of the Toyota Manufacturing Company.He developed Just in Time strategy as a means of competitiveadvantage during the post World War II period in Japan. The post-World War II Japanese automobile industry faced acrisis of existence, and companies such as Toyota looked tobenchmark their thriving American counterparts. Theproductivity of an American car worker was nine times that of a Japanese car worker at that time, and Taiichi Onho soughtways to reach such levels. Two pressing challenges however prevented Toyota fromadopting the American way:
Americancar manufacturersmade “lots” or a “batch” of a model or a component before switching over to a newmodel or component. This system was not suited to the Japanese conditions where a small market requiredmanufacturing in small quantities.
2.The car pricing policy of US manufacturers was to chargea mark-up on the cost price. The low demand in Japanled to price resistance. The need of the hour was thus toreduce manufacturing costs to increase profits. To overcome these two challenges, Taiichi Onho identifiedwaste as the primary evil. The categories of waste identifiedincluded
inventory or waste associated with keeping dead stock
time spent by workers waiting for materials to appear inthe assembly line
time spend on transportation or movement
workers spending more time than necessary processingan item
waste associated with defective items Taiichi Onho then sought to eliminate waste through the just-in-timephilosophy, where items moved through theproduction system only as and when needed.
Q2. What is Value Engineering or Value Analysis?Elucidate five companies which have incorporated VEwith brief explanation.
Value Engineering
(VE), also known as Value Analysis,is a systematic and function-based approach to improving thevalue of products, projects, or processes.VE involves a team
of people following a structured process. The process helpsteam members communicate across boundaries, understanddifferent perspectives, innovate, and analyze.
When to useit
Value Analysis
to analyze and understand the detail of specific situations.Use it to find a focus on key areas for innovation.Use it in reverse (called
Value Engineering
) to identifyspecific solutions to detail problems.It is particularly suited to physical and mechanical problems,but can also be used in other areas.
 How it works
Value Analysis (and its design partner, Value Engineering) isused to increase the value of products or services to allconcerned by considering the function of individual items andthe benefit of this function and balancing this against thecosts incurred in delivering it. The task then becomes toincrease the value or decrease the cost.
Q3. Explain different types of Quantitative models.Differentiate between work study and motion study.
Ans. Quantitative models are needed for a variety omanagement tasks, including

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