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Optics Lectures 2007

# Optics Lectures 2007

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09/20/2012

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OPTICS
P. Ewart
1. Geometrical Optics
1.1

Fermat's Principle
Light has been studied for a long time. Archimedes and other ancient Greek thinkersmade original contributions but we mention here Heron of Alexandria (c. 10 - 75 AD) ashe was the first to articulate what has come to be known as Fermat's Principle. Fermat,stated his principle as "Light travelling between two points follows a path taking the leasttime." The modern, and more correct version, is as follows:
"Light propagating between two points follows a path, or paths, for which the timetaken is an extremum."
The principle has a theoretical basis in the quantum theory of light that avoids thequestion of how the light "knows" what direction to go in so that it will follow themaximal path! [Basically the wave function for the light consists of all possible paths butall, except the one corresponding to the classical path, destructively interfere owing tovariations in the phase over the different paths.]Fermat’s principle is the basis of Geometrical optics which ignores the wave nature of light. The principle may be used to derive Snell's Laws of reflection and refraction.Optical path length OAP = L, given by:
2/1222/122
])[()(
h xh x L
+++=
For a maximum or minimum
0
=
dxdL
from which we find
2/
x
=
Hence the incidence angle
θ
= reflection angle
φ
: Snell's law of reflection.Using a similar procedure we can derive Snell's law of refraction:
2211
sinsin
θ θ
nn
=
where
θ
1
and
θ
2
are the angles between the light ray and the normal to the surface between media of refractive index
n
1
and
n
2
respectively.

Geometrical optics uses the effective rule of thumb that light travels in straight lines in ahomogeneous medium of uniform refractive index. Deviations occur at boundaries between media of different refractive index or if the index varies in space. The path of light indicated by a ray can be plotted using Fermat’s Principle or its more useful form asSnell’s laws. This allows us to locate images of objects formed when light travels throughcomplicated lens systems or, in the case of mirages, through a medium of spatiallyvarying refractive index.
1.2

Lenses and Principal Planes
P
1
FirstPrincipalPlaneBackFocalPlane

Figure 1.1
P
2
SecondPrincipalPlaneFrontFocalPlane

Figure 1.2
Thin lens formula:
1
u
+
1
v
=
1
f

u
,
v
and are measured to centre of lens of ``zero'' thickness. For an object at infinity
u
=
parallel rays are focussed in the image plane where
v
=
. This defines the focal plane of a thin lens.For a thick or compound lens (composed of several individual lenses) the principal planeslocate the position of an equivalent thin lens. (See Figures 1.1 and 1.2) The effectivefocal length is the distance from the principal plane to the associated focal plane.

1.3 Compound lens systems
1.3.1 Telephoto lens
PrincipalPlaneFocalPlane

Figure 1.3
1.3.2 Wide angle lens
PrincipalPlaneFocalPlane
f

Figure 1.4
1.3.3 Telescope (Astronomical)
O
f
E
β

Figure 1.5
Angular magnification:
=
=
f
o
f
E