Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
What is Coal Seam Gas

What is Coal Seam Gas

Ratings: (0)|Views: 52|Likes:
Published by EricusSolarius

More info:

Published by: EricusSolarius on Apr 29, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/29/2011

pdf

text

original

 
 
What is Coal Seam Gas?
30 April 2011Coal Seam Gas (CSG) is natural gas (methane) obtained from drilling and mining shale rock deposits byusing a technique known as hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing or fracking for short, uses water,additives and solids such as sand, ceramic and metals to force open and induce fractures into shale rockformations where natural gas is trapped, above grounds pumps force the fluid mix at high pressuresinducing cracks and fractures in the underground rock formations, allowing the gas to flow through withease upwards to the surface. This is known as hydraulic fracturing. The science is behind this is (x yearsold) originally developed by Halliburton to extract water, oil and gas which otherwise would beuneconomical extract when compared from ordinary wells (Hydraulic Fracturing, JPT Nov 2010).Drivers behind Coal Seam Gas DemandAs cited by the by Coal Seam Industry suppliers; CSG is a ‘clean’ burning fuel by virtue of being emitter of C02 as it burns, (page 12, article 2.3, Macquarie Energy, PEL 463 Review of Environmental FactorsDrilling Operations 2010 February 2010) which make it a suitable fuel for governments and industries touse so they can comply with their low emission targets set as per Kyoto Protocols (Belinda 21/02/11 - 4Corners). At the Federal level in 2008 by then Rudd Govt (insert signage of treaty by Rudd report,nutshell ref).This includes the commitment by a number of State governments and Local Councils. )
Create PDFfiles without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
 
As a consequence of this international commitment; a new market has appeared for natural gascompanies and utilities. This has led to a boom in prospecting, extraction, use and conversion of coal-fuelled power plants to use natural gas in the generation of electricity, cooling and heating for airconditioning.The use of natural gas and the commitment of the City of Sydney’s Lord Major Clover Moore to meet itscommitment to a low carbon emission target have led to a new project for natural gas’s electricitygeneration. Lord Major Clover Moore made her commitment to a low a low emissions footprint in herspeech to the NSW Parliament in September 2008. (Lord Mayor of Sydney addresses the NSWParliament about peak oil), where she cited the concerns about CO2 emissions being instrumental incausing Global Warming (Anthropogenic Global Warming, Climate Change) and Peak-Oil Theory(Hubert’s Peak Oil Theory) behind the push to reduce and eliminate demand consumption of fossil fuelsby the City of Sydney Council, which currently power a number of sites controlled by the City of Sydney’scouncil (reference Post Carbon Cities Lord Mayor of Sydney addresses the NSW Parliament about peakoil).As a result of the City of Sydney Council has hired Allan Jones, engineer, with a background intrigeneration projects in the UK’s major city council conversion to trigeneration power plants to meet toa low emissions target. (cite background) to implement the Trigeneration project (uses natural gas togenerate electricity, provides heating, cooling for air condition) to effect the implementation. City of Sydney Council has put a tender for Trigeneration 1045 for (cite reference Tender number 1045 ForTrigeneration Systems Design, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance with Finance and City-WideESCO Options). (2.3.1 Tri-Generation Concept PEL 463, Review of Environmental Factors, DrillingOperations 2010, February 2010)A number of companies have come forward with the tenders and the City of Sydney has awarded thetender Macquarie Energy, owned by Apollo Gas, is to commence test drilling for methane gas with aview to extraction from the inner city suburb of St Peters, the site is owned by Dial-A-Dump. (SunHerald 14/11/ 2010).Apollo Gas managing director Andrew Mayo said that there is no intention of using fracking technique inthe St Peters site as of 14/11/2010. However this policy may be have been reversed since the acquisitionof its parent company last February 8 this year, Dart Energy Ltd, acquired Apollo Gas (ReportageOnline, 7/03/11).Macquarie Energy’s Andrew Mayo indicated that the company has been granted several other sites forCSG exploration and believes that there are several large coal seam gas deposits stretching from the Cityof Sydney to the Hunter Valley 16/11/ 2010, Ben Cubby, and SMH.).St Peters Site
Create PDFfiles without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
 
 The St Peters: fracking test site, operation by Macquarie Energy.RisksLeakage of waste water into underground aquifers, gas leakage, leakage of chemicals into aquifers andrise to the ground water supplies in populated areas’ water supply, soil contamination. These chemicalscan bio-accumulate in human organs. (4 Corners, 21/02/11).Dr Mariann Lloyd-Smith (4 Corners 21/02/11), specialist in chemical management said that frackingchemicals are regulated, reported and disclosed by the Coal Seam Gas industry. She elaborates that thechemicals used not listed in material safety data sheets for handling and disposal and continueunregulated by the national regulator NICNAS. In total there are 23 generally used chemicals in fracking,however just two have been assessed (Four Corners 21/02/2011), Dr Lloyd-Smith the rest remainunaccounted for.There are reports on contamination by BTEX chemicals in QLD boreholes as 18 Nov 2010 (BusinessExpectator 18/11/10).Elements of fracking fluid:The main component is water, with proppants such as ceramics, sand, metal particles and a closely heldindustry compounds, among them BTEX chemicals. BTEX: Benzene, Toluene, Exylbenzine, Xylene, aregasoline’s compounds, such as Xylene, Toluene and Benzene; these are known cancer inducingchemicals and endocrine disruptorsThe full list of chemicals used in the industry is available from the New York State Dept of Conservation.At the time of writing, the status of the St Peters’ site prospective future for the production of CSG is notcertain pending both the resolution of planning laws devolution to the local council, a change of policyof by the City of City and NSW Govt’s continuation of low carbon emission policies embodied in theTrigeneration Scheme and the actual passing of the Carbon Price to make CSG a viable and profitableendeavour for the Gas Industry..
Create PDFfiles without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->