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Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management

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Published by Madiha__Jabbar
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management

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Published by: Madiha__Jabbar on Apr 30, 2011
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TQM: Towards Zero Defects
By: C. K. Karekatti
Success stories of QMS in automotive and electronic industries are well documented. Success of IndianOEMs in automobile Component industry is largely attributed to TQM. However utility of these tools is oftenquestioned in apparel industry. Having worked as a key member in implementing TQM in apparel industry, Iam better placed to answer these anxieties. If low productivity, fire fighting, customer complaints, attrition,are issues with your business, then your organization needs to either tighten the existing QMS or implementone. In this paper an attempt is made to introduce and quantify practical utility of these tools in apparelindustry.
Are QMS Suitable for labour intensive industry like Textile and Apparel ?
The answer is abundantly yes. Operations heads in apparel industry often express their inability tostandardize the processes due to product variability, unpredictable market (fashion) trends etc. One of theleading aerospace industry implementing TQM is an excellent example to refute these claims
. Thecompany sources components from vendors located across the globe. It is subjected to far more market riskcompared to apparel industry, including design changes, interest rates, exchange rates, and commodityprices. The company meets its delivery schedule where the cost of delay is catastrophic. Interestingly it isnot the process or product limitation but psychological factors that cause the reluctance among garmentprofessionals in implementing TQM.
History of QMS
In the early days quality was restricted to inspection. In the 1920’s statistical theory began to be appliedeffectively to quality control. Work of Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Dodge and Romig lead the foundation ofstatistical process control (SPC). In a paper given by Feigenbaum
, the term “total quality” was used for thefirst time, and referred to wider issues such as planning, organization and management responsibility.Ishikawa gave a paper
explaining how “total quality control” in Japan was different, it meaning, “companywide quality control” and describing how all employees, from top management to the workers, must studyand participate in quality control.
QMS Defined
“A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance.” 
Each Quality management systems (TQM, ISO etc) and its elements (Statistical process control, (SPC),Kaizen, Advance product quality planning and control (APQP), have a distinctive applicability. It is necessarythat the approach selected suits current and future needs of the organization. SPC works towards bringingprocess under the influence of common causes alone by identifying & eliminating assignable causes. APQPfocuses mainly on new product development / project execution. ISO 9000 currently includes three qualitystandards (ISO 9000:2005, ISO 9001:2000, and ISO 9004:2000). ISO 9001:2000 presents ISO's new qualitymanagement system
, while ISO 9000:2005 and ISO 9004:2000 _______________ 
(Anon, Boeing knows lean,2002, [online], Available fromwww.jobfunctions.bnet.com/casestudy(citedMarch 2007
 Present ISO's new quality management system guidelines. All of these are process standards & not productstandards and are developed by quality experts from around the world for use by companies that either wantto implement their own in-house quality systems or to ensure that suppliers have appropriate quality systemsin place.Labour intensive industry like apparel can seize full benefit of QMS only if every individual (Operators andManagers alike) contribute in its implementation. Going by my experience, the scale of employeeinvolvement brought by TQM, in achieving functional excellence (without the hassles of extensivedocumentation), can hardly be matched by any other QMS.
What is TQM?TQM Defined
TQM is a philosophy or approach to management that can be characterized by its principles, practices, andtechniques. Its three principles are customer focus, continuous improvement, and teamwork. Each principleis implemented through a set of practices, which are simply activities such as collecting customerinformation or analyzing processes. The practices are, in turn, supported by a wide array of techniques.Dean and Bowen (1994)Successful implementation of TQM requires commitment from top management. No QMS can bringovernight improvements. It is sustained effort towards excellence at each level. Top management shouldlead by example. This can be demonstrated by top management through active participation in TQM relatedactivates.I have encountered managers who relate TQM with house keeping. TQM on the other hand is far wider inconcept. It aims to bring a cultural change in the way the organization works. TQM is managing the businessthrough knowledge based on facts rather than one’s hunch feeling or judgement drawn from experience.
How to implement TQM? 
TQM is a Journey not destination. TQM aim’s at zero defects in each functional areas viz. operations,quality, marketing, utility, service, etc. As shown in
fig 1.0
, as the organization progresses from 5- Standards(5-S) - Daily Work Management (DWM)- -Six sigma for each functional area, the possibility of defect rate isreduced to almost zero (3.4 Defects per million opportunities DPMO). Following are the phases of TQM implementation1) 5-S-(Sort, set in order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain)-Foundation Phase2) DWM (Daily Work Management) -Sustenance Phasea) Total Productive maintenance(TPM) -Maximize plant up timeb) Measurement system Analysis (MSA) -Instrument & systemCalibration3) Six Sigma- -Break through Improvement
Phase –I Foundation Phase-5-S
5-S Defined- Total work culture that develops organization’s ability to the fullest capacity to enhancecreativity and eliminate waste.Conceptually 5-S is aimed at developing a work culture where by all employees including operators,supervisors and managers participate in problem solving process.
Sort (1-S)
- this is initiated by identifying the abnormalities at the work area. Abnormalities are highlighted byunique identification tag also known as red tag. This ensures every employee participates in identifying theabnormality in respective work area. It is observed that putting red tag improves awareness regarding theabnormality, it also triggers a reaction among employees to think for ways for avoiding the reoccurrence ofabnormality.
Set in Order (2-s)
- Efforts are then directed towards resolving the tags. Objective is to find permanentsolution to problem. Day to day quality related problems such as label mixing, trims mixing (thread, labelwrongly attached) can be completely eliminated through 5-S. Ideally stores should stack trims segregatedbuyer wise, order wise etc with location marking done for each storage area. This will avoid the instances of

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