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Linux Faq

Linux Faq

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Published by shekhar

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Published by: shekhar on Apr 30, 2011
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1) What command is used to list the top 10 files / directories size wise? A: for X in $(du -s * | sort -nr | cut -f 2); do du -hs $X ; done2) What is the default Window system / Windows manager used in Linux? A: X.org3) What command is used to display a list of currently running processes? A: ps, top, pstree, pgrep, /proc file system4) What is a login shell? A program gets executed when a user logs into UNIX box. E.g. bash, sh, ksh, csh5) What is UID? A: User identification number which is assigned to each UNIX / Linux user; it may or may not beunique (unique number is recommended to avoid security related issues). UID and user relationship defined in /etc/passwd file.Code: man id, man users, man groups6) Explain Unix User security concept? A: Permissions - chmod and chownUser groups - group management - user managementRead su, sudo man page7) What PID? A: Process identification number; use ps command to see PID. It is a number used by Unixkernels and Windows operating systems to identify a process.8) Explain process ID zero and process ID 1? A: All the idle task has process ID zero, and never exits.The init process, with process ID 1, which does nothing but wait around for its child processes todie. Usually started for /etc/inittab9) Explain wheel group usage along with an example? A: man su10) What command is used to check a file system for errors?Code:fsckfsck.ext3fsck.nfsfsck.ext2fsck.vfatfsck.reiserfsfsck.msdos11) Is Linux / UNIX file system case sensitive? Give one example A: Yes, test.txt and TEST.txt are two different files12) What file contains the list of drives that are mounted at boot? A: /etc/fstab - Linux / Other UNIX version/etc/vfstab - Solaris UNIX
 
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13) Explain the usage of the fourth field in /etc/fstab? A:It is formatted as a comma separated list of options. Read mount command man page for allthe option.14) What is /etc/inittab file? In what file is the default run level defined?System V init examines the '/etc/inittab' file for an 'initdefault' entry, which tells init whether thereis a default run level. init is the program on Unix that spawns all other processes. It runs as adaemon and typically has PID 1. A: man initcat /etc/inittab15) Common run level values on RHEL A:0. Halt1. Single user mode6. Reboot3. Default text5. Default GUI16) To check the current run level: A: who -r run level17) What command is used to get help about command? What command is used to readmanual page for a given command? A: info command-nameman command-namecommand-name -hcommand-name --help18) What command form or symbol used to redirect output to a file?Use the > symbol A: command-name > output.txtUse the < symbol to read input from a file19) What is ssh? Specify ssh command syntax to execute command over a TCP/IP network?SSH is Application layer protocol which allows data to be exchanged over a secure channelbetween two computers. A: ssh user@remote.box command-name20) What is POSIX? Name 2 POSIX-oriented operating systems? A: Portable Operating System Interface is the collective name of a family of related standardsspecified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API). HP-UX, Solaris, AIX etcLinux and BSD not certified as POSIX but conform to standard.21) Explain Raw device and command s to configure Raw deviceBlock device file that allows accessing a storage device such as a hard drive directly. For example /dev/hda. Use commands A: mknod, fdisk, mkfsmkfs.ext3
 
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22) Explain Unix file types A: DirectoryPipesFifoSymbolic linkNamed pipeSocketDevice fileDoor Regular file23) Explain UNIX software pipeline concept See shell or bash man page A:cat /etc/passwd | grep usernamemount | grep cdrom24) Explain XYZ Unix daemons .Where XYZ can be any one of the following: A:Init, httpd, dhcpd, lpd, nfsd, ntpd, syslogd, ypbind, ftpd, telnetdsshdnamed25) Explain Process management and related commands & Explain Memory management andrelated commands & What is Open Group standards? A: Specify seciaal usage for each one of the following file/dev/null - Send unwanted output/dev/random - Random number generation/dev/zero - Cache or Destroy data on a partition - dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda98Linux Systems and Network AdministrationEverything for the newbie admins.« Building a separate partition for Squid Cache Autoblock IPs with failed SSH logins »h1Linux Job Interview QuestionsJune 1, 2006Linux Tips************What command should you use to check your filesystem? Answer: fsckThe fsck command is used to check the integrity of the filesystem on your disk.

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