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CELL DIVISION +Orginisation of Cells

CELL DIVISION +Orginisation of Cells

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Published by: samira_666 on May 01, 2011
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CELL DIVISION
Dividing cells under go a regular sequence of events known as cellcycle.Cell cycle may be divided into 2 basic parts
1. Interphase /Resting phase
Period of non division
It is divided into 3 phases namingG1/first growth phase
cell organelles are synthesized
new proteins produced
cytoplasm produced
cell grows rapidly ii) S/synthesis phaseDNA replicatesiii) G2 /second growth phase –
centrioles replicate
energy stores increase
2. Mitosis
 This happens in 4 phases1. Prophase2. Metaphase3. Anaphase4. Telophase
PROPHASE
At the early stages (late interphase) the chromosomes are notvisible whereas during the late prophase they become visible aslong thin threads.Gradualy they coil and condense becomingshort and thick
Each chromosome is seen to comprise 2chromatids joined at thecentromere.
 The centrioles migrate to the opposite poles of the cell (Theyappear like star like asters) and microtubules called spindlefibres,span the cell from pole to pole.
Nucleolus disappears
Nuclear membrane disintegrates
 
METAPHASE
 The chromosomes arrange themselves at the centre or equatorChromosomes become attached to certain spindle fibres at thecentromere
 ANAPHASE
 The centromeres split and further shortening of the spindle fibrescauses the 2 chromatids of each chromosome to separate and migrateto opposite poles. The centromere moves first towards the pole
NOTE
Contaction of the fibres causes the movement of the chromatids whichis an active process.Energy is provided by mitochondria which areobserved to collect around the spindle fibres.
TELOPHASE
 The chromatids reach their respective poles and hereafter will beknown as chromosomes.New nuclear membrane forms around each groupsChromosomes begins to uncondensed, uncoil and lengthen, thusbecoming invisible againSpindle fibres disintegrateNucleolus reformsCentrioles reform
CYTOKINESIS
Division of the cytoplasmFollows telophase and leads into the G1 phase of the interphaseAnimalsMicrofilaments/contractile fibres draw the cell surface membrane toform a furrow around the outside surface of the cell.Cell surface membrane in the furrow eventually join up and completelyseparate the two cells.PlantsSome spindle fibres remain in the region of the equatorGolgi apparatus produces a number of fluid filled vesicles These vesicles fuses to form a cell plate which grows across theequatorial plane The contents of the vesicles contribute to the new middle lamella andcell wall of the daughter cells,whilst their membranes form the new cellsurface membrane. The spreading plate eventually fuses with the parent cell wall andseparates the two daughter cells.
 
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MITOSIS BETWEEN PLANT AND ANIMALCELLS
PLANTANIMALNo centrioles presentCentrioles presentNo asters formedAsters formedCell division involves formation of cell plateCell division involves furrowingand cleavage of cytoplasmOccurs mainly at meristemOccurs in tissues throughout thebody
SIGNIFICANCE OF MITOSIS
1.Genetic stabilityDaughter cells are genetically identical2.GrowthIncrease in the number of cells3.Cell replacementDieing cells are replaced by mitosis4.RegenerationParts of the body are regenerated by mitosis5.Asexual reproductionMitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction, the production of newindividuals of a species by one parent organism.
MEIOSIS
Meiosis is a form of nuclear division in which the chromosome numberis halved from the diploid number(2n) to the haploid number(n).Interphase is followed by 2 cycles of nuclear division and cell divisionknown as meiosisI and meiosisIIA single cell gives rise to 4 haploid cells. This takes place during gamete formation (plants and animals)INTERPHASESame as in mitosis

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