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Bio Remediation

Bio Remediation

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Published by sharma28
bioremediation
bioremediation

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Published by: sharma28 on May 02, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/24/2012

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CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
PRINCIPLE OF BIOREMEDIATION
FECTOR OF BIOREMEDIATION
MICROBIAL POPULATIONS FORBIOREMEDIATION PROCESSES
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR OFBIOREMEDIATION
ADVANTAGES OF BIOREMEDIATION
DISADVANTAGES OF BIOREMEDIATION
USE OF BIOREMEDIATION
BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL
BIOREMEDIATION OF OIL POLLUTANTS
BIOREMEDIATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS
REFERENCE
 
INTRODUCTION
 The quality of life on Earth is linked inextricably to the overall quality of theenvironment. In early times, we believed that we had an unlimitedabundance of land and resources; today, however, the resources in the worldshow, in greater or lesser degree, our carelessness and negligence in usingthem. The problems associated with contaminated sites now assumeincreasing prominence in many countries. Contaminated lands generallyresult from past industrial activities when awareness of the health andenvironmental effects connected with the production, use, and disposal of hazardous substances were less well recognized than today. The problem isworldwide, and the estimated number of contaminated sites is significant. Itis now widely recognized that contaminated land is a potential threat tohuman health, and its continual discovery over recent years has led tointernational efforts to remedy many of these sites, either as a response tothe risk of adverse health or environmental effects caused by contaminationor to enable the site to be redeveloped for use. The conventional techniques used for remediation have been to dig upcontaminated soil and remove it to a landfill, or to cap and contain thecontaminated areas of a site. The methods have some drawbacks. The firstmethod simply moves the contamination elsewhere and may createsignificant risks in the excavation, handling, and transport of hazardousmaterial. Additionally, it is very difficult and increasingly expensive to findnew landfill sites for the final disposal of the material. The cap and containmethod is only an interim solution since the contamination remains on site,requiring monitoring and maintenance of the isolation barriers long into thefuture, with all the associated costs and potential liability. A better approachthan these traditional methods is to completely destroy the pollutants if possible, or at least to transform them to innocuous substances. Sometechnologies that have been used are high-temperature incineration andvarious types of chemical decomposition (e.g., base-catalyzeddechlorination, UV oxidation). They can be very effective at reducing levelsof a range of contaminants, but have several drawbacks, principally theirtechnological complexity, the cost for small-scale application, and the lack of public acceptance, especially for incineration that may increase the exposureto contaminants for both the workers at the site and nearby residents.Bioremediation is an option that offers the possibility to destroy or renderharmless various contaminants using natural biological activity. As such, ituses relatively low-cost, low-technology techniques, which generally have ahigh public acceptance and can often be carried out on site. It will not alwaysbe suitable, however, as the range of contaminants on which it is effective islimited, the time scales involved are relatively long, and the residualcontaminant levels achievable may not always be appropriate. Although the

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