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Sampling Methods

# Sampling Methods

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H2 Mathematics Sampling Methods Notes
H2 Mathematics Sampling Methods Notes

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07/04/2013

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SamplingMethodRandom Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Random SamplingDetails A sample in whicheach member of thepopulation has anequal chance of beingselectedThis is done by:Drawing lotsRandom Number Sampling A random startingpoint is selected, thenthe items are pickedat regular intervalsfrom the populationThe population isdivided into non-overlappingrepresentative groupsor strata according toone or more criteria.Items are selectedrandomly from eachstratum, wheresample size beingproportional to therelative size of thestratumThe population isdivided into non-overlapping subgroups,but sample is notrandom as sampler selects his sampleCriteria 1. Randomnumbers canbe generatedby computer 2. Samplingframe mustbe completeand updated3. Populationsize must bemanageable1. Startingpoint mustbe random(Use acomputer toget thestartingpoint)2. To be usedonly whenpopulation islikely to behomogeneous (all other factors thesame)3. Samplingframe mustbe updatedandcomplete4. Must firsthave anordered listof population1. Stratas mustnot overlap2. Stratas mustbeexhaustive(mutuallyexclusive)3. Each of thestrata mustbe treatedseparately,so samplingis easier andmoreaccurate4. Samplingframe mustbe updatedandcomplete1. No samplingframe isrequire2. Informationgathered mustbe treatedwith cautionas it does notrepresent thewholepopulationand biasnessexists Advantages -Data collected is freefrom bias-Sample is moreevenly spread outover the population-Easier to conductthan other types of sampling-Can obtain sufficientsample points tosupport a separateanalysis of anysubgroup-Ensures a better coverage of thepopulation as itrepresents thepopulationproportionately-Cost of sampling islow-Faster to gather information-Does not require asampling frameDisadvantages-Difficult to identifyevery member of population, especiallyif population is huge-May not be able toget access to somemembers who havebeen chosen for sample-There is a biascaused by theperiodicity of thepopulation (eg.Sampling of the useof a particular MRTstation in a period of time, every 7
th
dayselected for sampling= skewed results)-Not always possibleto arrange membersof population if sample size is large-Difficult to identifyappropriate strata-Time consuming asit is difficult toorganise-Not a goodrepresentative due tothe lack of a samplingframe-Sample is non-random, so difficult toassess sampling error -Method is biased

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