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4º ESO, Topic 6, Cold War (b)

4º ESO, Topic 6, Cold War (b)

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·
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DEVELOPMENTOFTHECOLDWAR
AftertheblockadeofBerlinthetwosuperpowerswereengagedinconflictuntil1989.
u
.E
.c
......
.~
c
:::s
E
E
War1955Creation01theWarsawPact1956suppressionoftheHungarianUprising1959Cuba.FidelCastro'srsvoluuon
1962The
1979USSRinvadesAfghanistan11949Creation
ofNA10
~~...
-~
194tTruman
Doctrine19S5Beginning01Perestroika
by
Gorbachev
1966
TheSovietsInvadeCzechoslovakia1991Disappearance
of
USSR"1989Berlin
,Wall
tornIdown
-
-
.
THEEARLYSTAGESOFTHECOlDWAR
In1948theUSA,GreatBritainandFrancedecidedtomergetheirGermansectionsandtheirterritoryinBerlin.TheUSSRdidn'tagreeandStalinblockad-edthecity.TheUSAandBritainflewinsuppliesforthecivilianpopulationofwesternBerlinovertheheadsoftheSovietsoldiers-thiswascalledthe
'BerlinAirlift'.
TheSovietsdidnotdaretoshootdowntheplanes,becausetheyknewthiswouldbeginanewwar:WhenStalinendedtheblockadein1949,after
10
months.Berlinwasdividedintoeastandwest.andtwonewstateswereformed:
West
Germany
(aFederalRepub-lic)and
EastGermany
(Communist).EastBerlinbecamethecapitalofthenewcommunistnation.
A
newfrontierhadbeencreatedbetweenthetwosuper-powers.ItwasthebeginningoftheColdWar,
TheColdWarbeginsCreationofthemilitaryblocs
TomakethingsworseforStalinNATO(NorthAt-lanticTreatyOrganisation)wasformedin1949bythe
USA
andthewesterncountries,as
a
militarypactagainsttheSovietthreat.Stalinreacted.butnotuntil1955,whenthe
USSR
anditsalliesformedthe
Wa
rsaw
Pact.
THEWORLDINBlOGS1960
',,>
WES1Em~BLOC
COMMutllST
BLOC
o
mo
c::J
\{J.j'~,I·.'
r.~rI
l:'ill
r'JI~u
~lllIln~·{llllItnlri£.'"
o
,lIu:sI)!
Vl/l'f.1l'lll~Olllllllt'~,
0
(;011111111111',1
nJullill~!:,
r.:::J
CUllIlU".
 
ProxyWars
ProxyWarswereconflictsthatwouldbefoughtbycountrieshostileorsympathetictothetwodifferentsystemsthatwehavealreadyoutlined,namelycommunismandcapitalism.Theywere'proxy'warsbecausetheUSAandtheSovietUniondidnotfighteachotherface-toface,butwererather'represent-ed'byothercountries.By1949,Europewasclearlydi-videdintoeastandwest,communistandcapitalist.Yugoslavia(under[osipTito)wascommunist,butremainedindependentfromtheSovietUnion.TheIronCurtainwaswellandtrulyestablished.Stalinwasgivenhis'sphereofinfluence'.Theworldwas'hi-polarised',politicallyspeaking.ItlookedasthoughEuropeanco-existencewaspossible,buttherewasthenewproblemofnuclearweapons.TheSovietscouldnotpermittheUSAtodevelopnuclearweaponsalone.InAugust1949theSovietstestedanuclear
device,
aprototypeofthehydrogenbomb.TheWestwasalarmedandthe'ArmsRace'hadbegun.But
the
USAandRussiaknewthatitwouldbealmostim-possibletofighteachothernow,becauseofthemassivedestructionthatnuclearweaponscouldcause,Thiswasthetheoryof'deterrence'.Theideawasthatyouwouldn'tattackwithnuclearweapons,be-causeyouknewthattheenemywoulddefenditself-withnuclearweapons.Sonobodywouldusethem.Nevertheless,thisdidnotstopaseriesof'proxy'warsbeingfoughtbetweencommunistsandtheWest.Herewewilldescribeonlythemostsignifi-cantconflicts.ThefirstoftheseconflictswasinKorea,anditisimportanthistoricallybecauseitrepresentedthefirstmajorconflictoftheColdWarperiod,anditwasthefirstmajorproxywar.ItwasalsoanearlyexampleoftheconsequencesofdecolonisationthathadbegunafterWorldWarTwo,becausetheKoreanpeninsulahadbeenoccupiedbythejapan-esesince191O.ln1945,whenthejapanesesurren-dered,theywereobligedtoleaveKorea.TheywerereplacedbytheSoviets-whosupportedNorthKorea,andtheAmericans,whosupportedSouthKorea-anarrangementagreedatthePotsdamConferenceinI945.Thetwocountriesweredivid-edbythe
38
th
parallel>-
ademilitarisedlone.Toaddtotheproblems,theCommunistState
of
ChinahadbeensetupbyMaoTseTungin1949,(afterhehadwonthecivilwarthatstartedattheendofWWII),andthewesternpowerswerewor-riedincasethewholeofthepeninsulabecamecommunist.TheprotectionofSouthKoreabytheUSAwasthefirstrealtestofthe
'TrumanDoctrine'.
.
-
THE'DOMINOTHEORY'
ThemostimportantconsequenceoftheKoreanWarwasthattheUSA(anditsallies)believedthatthe
'containment'
policyagainstcommunismwasthebestone.ButtheideaofcontainmentwasmodifiedslightlywhenPresidentEisenhowerfirstmentionedanewideaonaradiointerviewin1954.HewastalkingaboutIndochin-a(Cambodia,Laos,Vietnam).Hesaidthatifitfelltothecommunists,thentherewasapossibilitythatBurma,Thailand,MalaysiaandIndonesiawouldalsobetakenover-thattheywould'fall'likesuccessivedominoes.Thiswouldleavecountrieslikejapan,thePhilippines,NewZealandandAustraliawiththeresponsibilityofresistingcommunism,becausetheyweregeographicallytheclosest.EisenhowerwasworriedthatsomeofthemmightevenbecomefriendlywiththeSovi-ets,mainlythroughtrade.
DwightDavidEisenhower.USGeneralandpolitician(1890-1969)
 
THEKOREANWAR(1950-1953)
NorthKoreawascommu-nist:underthegovernmentof
Kim
/I
Sung,
supportedbytheSovietUnion.SouthKoreawasanti-com-munist,underthedictator-shipof
Syngman
Rhee,
sup-portedbytheUSA.ThetwoKoreanleadershatedeachother.B.othlead-erswantedtopresideovertheentireKoreanpeninsula.In1919,KimSungvisited
Stalin
then
MaoZedong
toaskthemfor'permission'toinvadeSouthKorea.Theygavethispermission..InJune1950,NorthKoreacrossedthe38
th
paral-lelandinvadedSouthKorea.TheUnitedNationsaskedtheirmemberstoin-tervene.TheUNtroopswere80%American,ledbyGeneralMacArthur.Situation:After
Potsdam,
Koreawasdividedintotwostates:UNtroopsfoughtbackandbyOctobertheyhadcrossedbackoverthe38
th
parallelandwereadvancingtowardstheChineseborder.TheChinesewerealarmed,andattackedtheUNforceswith500,000soldiers,re-capturingNorthKorea.ThenMacArthuraskedTrumantouseanuclearbombtostoptheChinese.Trumanrefused,andsackedMacArthur.TheUNforcesfoughtbackagain,thistimeusingjet-fightersandheavybombingofcivilianandmilitarytargetswithincen-diarydevices(napalm),Al-thoughtheSovietsalsosup-pliedjetfighterstotheNorthKoreans,theUnitedStatesgraduallybegantowinthewar:WhenStalindiedin1953andTrumanwasreplacedbyPresidentEisenhower.thetwosidesagreedtostopfighting.ThewarendedinJuly1953inastalemate.Thetwosuperpowersleftandtheborderswerereturnedtothesameas1950.Thenuclearriskhaddecreased,butonlyafter5milliondeaths,mostofthemcivilian.
...
If
mericM.
poinl
01errtf}'
(15-9-1950)
Maximumadval!ces01
N
KOrean
larcas(1950)
TheNorthKoreanswereverysuccessfulatfirst,andtheycapturedmostofSouthKorea.Butthe

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