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Chapter 9 & Chapter 10 Test Preperation

Chapter 9 & Chapter 10 Test Preperation

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Published by IWantToBelieve8728

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Published by: IWantToBelieve8728 on Sep 03, 2008
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09/29/2012

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Chapter 9
1.
 
Motives are needs or desires that energize and direct behavior toward a goal.2.
 
Motivation is all the processes that initiate, direct, and sustain behavior.3.
 
Intrinsic Motivation is the desire to behave in a certain way because it isenjoyable or satisfying in and of itself.4.
 
Extrinsic Motivation is the desire to behave in a certain way in order to gainsome external reward or to avoid some undesirable consequence.5.
 
The Yerkes-Dodson Law is the principle that performance on tasks is bestwhen the arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task: higherarousal for simple tasks, moderate arousal for tasks of moderate difficulty, andlower arousal for complex tasks.6.
 
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is what Abraham Maslow claimed that
individuals must satisfy physiological and safety needs before addressingneeds for love, esteem, and self-actualization.7.
 
M
aslow’s Hierarchy of Needs include:
 
 
Physiological Needs: Need to satisfy the basic biological needs for food,water, oxygen, sleep, and elimination of bodily wastes.
 
Safety Needs: Need for Safety and Security.
 
Belonging and Love Needs: Need to love and be loved; need to affiliatewith others and be accepted.
 
Esteem Needs: Needs to achieve, to gain competence, to gain respect, andrecognition from others.
 
Need for Self-
Actualization: Need to realize one’s fullest potential.
 8.
 
Eating Disorders are a category of mental disorders in which eating anddieting behaviors go far beyond the everyday extremes of overeating anddieting many people experience.9.
 
Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an overwhelming,irrational, fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, compulsive dieting to thepoint of self-starvation, and excessive weight loss.10.
 
Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by repeated anduncontrolled (and often secretive) episodes of binge eating.11.
 
Emotion is an identifiable feeling state involving physiological arousal, acognitive appraisal of the situation or stimulus causing that internal body state,and an outward behavior expressing the state.12.
 
The Sexual Response Cycle has four phases
 – 
excitement, plateau, orgasm,and resolution
 – 
that makeup the human sexual response in both males andfemales, according to Masters and Johnson.13.
 
Sexual Orientation is the direction of one’s se
xual preference
 – 
toward
members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), toward one’s own sex
(homosexuality), or toward both sexes (bisexuality).14.
 
How do internal and external cues influence eating behavior?
 
When the Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) is activated, it signals the organismto eat. When the Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) is activated itsignals the organism to stop eating. Signals that activate these two
 
structures in the brain include the fullness of the stomach and glucose andinsulin levels in the bloodstream. External cues include the smell of foodand the time of day.15.
 
The physiological component of the fear response is relayed to the amygdalabefore going to the cortex. When the cortex catches up, it regulates the
amygdala’s influence
on the fight-or-flight response.16.
 
Men are more prone to anger when betrayed; Women are more likely to feel
sad. Men are more likely to express anger publicly. Women’s physiologicalresponses to negative emotions may be more intense than those of men’s
responses.17.
 
Display Rules are cultural rules that dictate how emotions should generally beexpressed and when and where their expression is appropriate.
Chapter 10
1.
 
Stress is the physiological and psychological response to a condition thatthreatens or challenges a person and requires some form of adaptation oradjustment.2.
 
Stressor is any stimulus or event capable of producing physical or emotionalstress.3.
 
Fight-or-Flight Response is a response to stress in which the sympatheticnervous system and the endocrine glands prepare the body to fight or flee.4.
 
Hassles are little stressors, including the irritating demands that can occurdaily, that may cause more stress than major life changes do.5.
 
Uplifts are the positive experiences in life, which may neutralize the effects of many hassles.6.
 
The three different types of conflict include:
 
Approach-Approach Conflict: A conflict arising from having to choosebetween equally desirable alternatives.
 
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: A conflict arising from having to choosebetween undesirable alternatives.
 
Approach-Avoidance Conflict: A conflict arising when the same choicehas both desirable and undesirable features.7.
 
Some researchers believe that African Americans have higher levels of highblood pressure than members of other groups because of stress due toHistorical Racism. African Americans who express high levels of concernabout racism display larger cardiovascular responses to experimentallyinduced stressors than do their peers who express lower levels of concern.8.
 
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) is the predictable sequence of reactions(alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages) that organisms show in response tostressors.9.
 
The Three Stages of General Adaptation Syndrome include:
 
Alarm Stage: The first stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome, inwhich the person experiences a burst of energy that aids in dealing with thestressful situation. (Fight-or-Flight)

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