FREEDOM OF THE PRESS 2011
Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan, as well as a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, includingKenya, Senegal, and Zimbabwe.
Key Trends in 2010
Misuse of licensing and regulatoryframeworks has emerged as a key methodof control in a number of semidemocraticand authoritarian settings.
Authoritarianregimes have increasingly used boguslegalistic maneuvers to narrow the space forindependent broadcasting, effectivelycountering an earlier trend of growth in thenumber of private radio and televisionoutlets. In Russia, Venezuela, and a range of other countries, denial or suspension of broadcast licenses or closure of outlets onspurious grounds are preferred methods forsuppressing unwelcome views.
Control over new means of newsdissemination, particularly internet-basedsocial media, has become a priority forauthoritarian governments.
As mediadelivery systems have expanded fromtraditional print formats and terrestrialbroadcasting to satellite television, theinternet, and mobile telephones,authoritarian governments have intensifiedefforts to exert control over the new meansof communication as well as the newsoutlets that employ them. Blocking of satellite television transmissions was notedin Egypt and Iran, while the social-networking website Facebook was blockedbriefly in Pakistan and remained unavailablein China, Syria, and Vietnam. Somedemocratic and semidemocratic states alsomoved to implement additional controlsover the internet, including South Korea andThailand, which increased censorship of online content.
The role of nonstate forces in thesuppression of press freedom is growing.
In Mexico, violence associated with drugtrafficking has led to a dramatic increase inattacks on journalists and rising levels of self-censorship and impunity. In 2010, thecountry’s organized crime groups movedmore aggressively to control the newsagenda; no longer satisfied with silencingthe media, they have demanded specificcoverage that suits their interests. Somewhatless intense pressure by drug traffickinggroups drove continued declines in Guinea-Bissau, another burgeoning narcostate.
Worsening violence against the press andimpunity for such crimes are forcing journalists into self-censorship or exile.
The level of violence and physicalharassment directed at the press by bothofficial and nonstate actors remains a keyconcern in a number of countries. In mediaenvironments ranging from conflict zones tostruggling democracies with a weak rule of law, the press is facing increasedintimidation or outright attacks. Accordingto the Committee to Protect Journalists,some of the deadliest countries for journalists in 2010 were Honduras,Indonesia, Iraq, Mexico, and Pakistan.These attacks have a chilling effect on theprofession, encouraging self-censorship orexile, and the failure to punish or evenseriously investigate crimes against journalists has reached scandalousproportions.
Threats to media freedom remain aconcern in established democracies.
Various pressures impinge on press freedomin democratic countries as diverse as India,Israel, Italy, and South Africa. Increasedcensorship and attempts to exert officialinfluence over the management of broadcastoutlets led to a decline in South Korea’sstatus, from Free to Partly Free. In Hungary,the conservative government of PrimeMinister Viktor Orbán pushed restrictivelegislation through the parliament and seizedcontrol over media regulators and publicbroadcasters.