# Welcome back

## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

5Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heatingRatings: (0)|Views: 1,016|Likes: 3

Published by Fran De Aquino

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is actually the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electron temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and strong localized heating.

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is actually the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electron temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and strong localized heating.

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/54447230/High-power-ELF-radiation-generated-by-modulated-HF-heating-of-the-ionosphere-can-cause-Earthquakes-Cyclones-and-localized-heating

09/26/2012

text

original

High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of theionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating

Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.Copyright

©

2011 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most importantfacility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere.In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in theD region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which thenradiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiationgenerated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes,Cyclones

and strong localized heating.

.

Key words:

Physics of the ionosphere, radiation processes, Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Storms.PACS: 94.20.-y ; 94.05.Dd ; 91.30.Px ; 91.30.Nw; 92.60.Qx

1. Introduction

Generating electromagnetic radiationat extremely-low frequencies is difficultbecause the long wavelengths require longantennas, extending for hundreds of kilometers. Natural ionospheric currentsprovide such an antenna if they can bemodulated at the desired frequency [

]. Thegeneration of ELF electromagnetic radiationby modulated heating of the ionosphere hasbeen the subject matter of numerous papers[

].In 1974, it was shown that ionosphericheater can generate ELF waves by heatingthe ionosphere with high-frequency (HF)radiation in the megahertz range [

]. Thisheating modulates the electron’s temperaturein the D region ionosphere, leading tomodulated conductivity and a time-varyingcurrent, which then radiates at themodulation frequency.Several HF ionospheric heaters havebeen built in the course of the latest decadesin order to study the ELF waves produced bythe heating of the ionosphere with HFradiation. Currently, the HAARP heater isthe most powerful ionospheric heater, with3.6GW of effective power using HF heatingbeam, modulated at ELF (2.5Hz) [

].This paper shows that high-power ELFradiation generated by modulated HF heatingof the lower ionosphere, such as thatproduced by the current HAARP heater, cancause Earthquakes, Cyclones and stronglocalized heating.

2. Gravitational Shielding

The contemporary greatest challenge of the Theoretical Physics was to prove that,Gravity is a

quantum

phenomenon. SinceGeneral Relativity describes gravity asrelated to the curvature of space-time then,the quantization of the gravity implies thequantization of the proper space-time. Untilthe end of the century XX, several attemptsto quantize gravity were made. However, allof them resulted fruitless [

].In the beginning of this century, it wasclearly noticed that there was somethingunsatisfactory about the whole notion of quantization and that the quantizationprocess had many ambiguities. Then, a newapproach has been proposed starting f rom thegeneralization of the

action function

. Theresult has been the derivation of a theoreticalbackground, which finally led to the so-sought quantization of the gravity and of the

*

The formulation of the

action

in Classical Mechanicsextends to Quantum Mechanics and has been the basisfor the development of the

Strings Theory.

2

space-time. Published with the title“

Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity

”[

],this theory predicts a consistent

unification

of Gravity with Electromagnetism. It showsthat the

strong

equivalence principle isreaffirmed and, consequently, Einstein’sequations are preserved. In fact, Einstein’sequations can be deduced directly from thementioned theory. This shows, therefore, thatthe General Relativity is a particularizationof this new theory, just as Newton’s theory isa particular case of the General Relativity.Besides, it was deduced from the new theoryan important correlation between the

gravitational mass

and the

inertial mass

,which shows that the gravitational mass of aparticle can be

decreased

and even made

negative

, independently of its inertial mass,i.e., while the gravitational mass isprogressively reduced, the inertial mass doesnot vary. This is highly relevant because itmeans that the weight of a body can also bereduced and even inverted in certaincircumstances, since Newton’s gravity lawdefines the weight

P

of a body as theproduct of its

gravitational mass

by thelocal gravity acceleration , i.e.,

g

mg

( )

1

gmP

g

=

It arises from the mentioned law that thegravity acceleration (or simply the gravity)produced by a body with gravitational massis given by

g

M

( )

2

2

r GM g

g

=

The physical property of mass has twodistinct aspects:

gravitational mass

m

g

and

inertial mass

m

i

. The gravitational massproduces and responds to gravitational fields;it supplies the mass factor in Newton'sfamous inverse-square law of gravity

( )

2

r mGM F

gg

=

. The inertial massis the mass factor in

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion

. These two masses are notequivalent but correlated by means of thefollowing factor [

(

amF

i

=

)

]:

( )

31121

200

⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎣⎡−⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ Δ+−=

cm pmm

iig

Where is the

rest

inertial mass and

0

i

m

p

Δ

isthe variation in the particle’s

kineticmomentum

;

c

is the speed of light.This equation shows that only for

0

=Δ

p

the gravitational mass is equal to theinertial mass. Instances in which

p

Δ

isproduced by

electromagnetic radiation

, Eq.(3) can be rewritten as follows [

]:

( )

41121

2320

⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎢⎣⎡−⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ +−=

c Dnmm

r ig

ρ

Where is

the refraction index

of theparticle;

is the power density of theelectromagnetic radiation absorbed by theparticle; and

r

n

D

ρ

,

its density of inertial mass.From electrodynamics we know that

( )( )

5112

2

⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ++===

ωε σ μ ε κ ω

r r r

cdt dzv

where is the real part of the

propagation vector

r

k k

r

(also called

phaseconstant

);

ir

ik k k k

+==

r

;

ε

,

μ

and

σ

,

arethe electromagnetic characteristics of themedium in which the incident radiation ispropagating (

0

ε ε ε

r

=

; ;

mF

/ 10854.8

120

−

×=

ε

0

μ

r

=

, where ).

m / H

70

104

−

×=

π μ

From (5), we see that the

index of refraction

vcn

r

=

, for

ωε σ

>>

, is givenby

( )

64

0

ε π σ μ

f n

r r

=

Substitution of Eq. (6) into Eq. (4) yields

3

( )

714121

20

⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎢⎣⎡−⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ +−==

cf Dmm

ig

πρ μσ χ

It was shown that there is an additionaleffect -

Gravitational Shielding

effect -produced by a substance whose gravitationalmass was reduced or made negative [

].This effect shows that just

beyond

thesubstance the gravity acceleration will bereduced at the same proportion

1

g

0

1

ig

mm

=

χ

,i.e.,

gg

1

1

χ

=

, ( is the gravity acceleration

before

the substance). Consequently,

after asecond gravitational shielding

, the gravitywill be given by

g

ggg

2112

2

χ χ χ

==

, where

2

χ

is the value of the ratio

0

ig

mm

for the

second

gravitational shielding. In ageneralized way, we can write that after the

nth

gravitational shielding the gravity,,will be given by

n

g

gg

n

n

χ χ χ χ

...

321

=

The dependence of the shieldingeffect on the height, at which the samples areplaced above a superconducting disk withradius, has been recentlymeasured up to a height of about 3m [

mr

D

1375.0

=

].This means that the gravitational shieldingeffect extends, beyond the disk, forapproximately

20 times

the disk

radius

.

3.

Gravitational Shieldings in the Van Allenbelts

The

Van Allen belts

are torus of plasma around Earth, which are held in placeby Earth's magnetic field (See Fig.1). Theexistence of the belts was confirmed by theExplorer 1 and Explorer 3 missions in early1958, under Dr James Van Allen at theUniversity of Iowa. The term

Van Allen belts

refers specifically to the radiation beltssurrounding Earth; however, similarradiation belts have been discovered aroundother planets.Now consider the ionospheric heatingwith HF beam, modulated at ELF (See Fig.2). The amplitude-modulated HF heating

Fig.1 – Van Allen belts

InnerbeltOuterbelt

Magneticaxis

Earth

Van Allen belts

0 3600km 6600km

wave is absorbed by the ionospheric plasma,modulating the local conductivity

σ

. Thecurrent density

0

E j

σ

=

radiates ELFelectromagnetic waves that pass through theVan Allen belts producing two GravitationalShieldings where the densities are

minima

,i.e., where they are approximately equal todensity of the

interplanetary medium

nearEarth. The quasi-vacuum of theinterplanetary space might be thought of asbeginning at an altitude of about 1000kmabove the Earth’s surface [

]. Thus, we canassume that the densities

i

ρ

and

o

ρ

respectively, at the first gravitationalshielding S

i

(at the

inner

Van Allen belt) andat S

o

(at the

outer

Van Allen belt)

are(density of the

interplanetary medium

near the Earth [

320

.108.0

−−

×≅≅

mkg

io

ρ ρ

]).The parallel conductivities,

i

0

σ

and

o

0

σ

, respectively at S

i

and S

o

, presentvalues which lie between those for metallicconductors and those for semiconductors[

], i.e.,

mS

oi

/ 1~

00

σ σ

≅

. Thus, in thesetwo Gravitational Shielding, according to Eq.(7), we have, respectively:

( )

81101.4121

24

⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎢⎣⎡−⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ ×+−=

f D

ii

χ

†

Conductivity in presence of the Earth’s magnetic field

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.

1 hundred reads

1 thousand reads

Natalia Valentina liked this

Rogelio Arroyo S. liked this

Mete Siyah liked this

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

© Copyright 2015 Scribd Inc.

Language

Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Password Reset Email Sent

Join with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

By joining, you agree to our

read free for one month

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Join with Facebook

or Join with EmailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

Already a member? Sign in.

By joining, you agree to our

to download

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Continue with Facebook

Sign inJoin with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

By joining, you agree to our

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd