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High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating

High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating

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Published by Fran De Aquino
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is actually the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electron temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and strong localized heating.
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is actually the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electron temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and strong localized heating.

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Published by: Fran De Aquino on May 02, 2011
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High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of theionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating
Fran De Aquino
Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.Copyright
©
2011 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most importantfacility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere.In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in theD region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which thenradiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiationgenerated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes,Cyclones
and strong localized heating.
.
Key words:
Physics of the ionosphere, radiation processes, Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Storms.PACS: 94.20.-y ; 94.05.Dd ; 91.30.Px ; 91.30.Nw; 92.60.Qx
1. Introduction
 Generating electromagnetic radiationat extremely-low frequencies is difficultbecause the long wavelengths require longantennas, extending for hundreds of kilometers. Natural ionospheric currentsprovide such an antenna if they can bemodulated at the desired frequency [
1-6
]. Thegeneration of ELF electromagnetic radiationby modulated heating of the ionosphere hasbeen the subject matter of numerous papers[
7-13
].In 1974, it was shown that ionosphericheater can generate ELF waves by heatingthe ionosphere with high-frequency (HF)radiation in the megahertz range [
7
]. Thisheating modulates the electron’s temperaturein the D region ionosphere, leading tomodulated conductivity and a time-varyingcurrent, which then radiates at themodulation frequency.Several HF ionospheric heaters havebeen built in the course of the latest decadesin order to study the ELF waves produced bythe heating of the ionosphere with HFradiation. Currently, the HAARP heater isthe most powerful ionospheric heater, with3.6GW of effective power using HF heatingbeam, modulated at ELF (2.5Hz) [
].This paper shows that high-power ELFradiation generated by modulated HF heatingof the lower ionosphere, such as thatproduced by the current HAARP heater, cancause Earthquakes, Cyclones and stronglocalized heating.
2. Gravitational Shielding
The contemporary greatest challenge of the Theoretical Physics was to prove that,Gravity is a
quantum
phenomenon. SinceGeneral Relativity describes gravity asrelated to the curvature of space-time then,the quantization of the gravity implies thequantization of the proper space-time. Untilthe end of the century XX, several attemptsto quantize gravity were made. However, allof them resulted fruitless [
].In the beginning of this century, it wasclearly noticed that there was somethingunsatisfactory about the whole notion of quantization and that the quantizationprocess had many ambiguities. Then, a newapproach has been proposed starting f rom thegeneralization of the
action function
*
. Theresult has been the derivation of a theoreticalbackground, which finally led to the so-sought quantization of the gravity and of the
*
The formulation of the
action
in Classical Mechanicsextends to Quantum Mechanics and has been the basisfor the development of the
Strings Theory.
 
 
2
space-time. Published with the title
 Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity
”[
],this theory predicts a consistent
unification
of Gravity with Electromagnetism. It showsthat the
strong
equivalence principle isreaffirmed and, consequently, Einstein’sequations are preserved. In fact, Einstein’sequations can be deduced directly from thementioned theory. This shows, therefore, thatthe General Relativity is a particularizationof this new theory, just as Newton’s theory isa particular case of the General Relativity.Besides, it was deduced from the new theoryan important correlation between the
gravitational mass
and the
inertial mass
,which shows that the gravitational mass of aparticle can be
decreased 
and even made
negative
, independently of its inertial mass,i.e., while the gravitational mass isprogressively reduced, the inertial mass doesnot vary. This is highly relevant because itmeans that the weight of a body can also bereduced and even inverted in certaincircumstances, since Newton’s gravity lawdefines the weight
P
of a body as theproduct of its
gravitational mass
by thelocal gravity acceleration , i.e.,
g
mg
 
( )
1
gmP
g
=
 It arises from the mentioned law that thegravity acceleration (or simply the gravity)produced by a body with gravitational massis given by
g
 M 
 
( )
2
2
GM g
g
=
 The physical property of mass has twodistinct aspects:
gravitational mass
 
m
g
and
inertial mass
 
m
i
. The gravitational massproduces and responds to gravitational fields;it supplies the mass factor in Newton'sfamous inverse-square law of gravity
( )
2
mGM 
gg
=
. The inertial massis the mass factor in
 
 Newton's 2nd Law of  Motion
. These two masses are notequivalent but correlated by means of thefollowing factor [
(
am
i
=
)
]:
( )
31121
200
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ Δ+=
cm pmm
iig
 Where is the
rest 
inertial mass and
0
i
m
 p
Δ
isthe variation in the particle’s
kineticmomentum
;
c
 
is the speed of light.This equation shows that only for
0
=Δ
 p
 
the gravitational mass is equal to theinertial mass. Instances in which
 p
Δ
isproduced by
electromagnetic radiation
, Eq.(3) can be rewritten as follows [
]:
( )
41121
2320
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ +=
c Dnmm
ig
 ρ 
 Where is
the refraction index
of theparticle;
 
is the power density of theelectromagnetic radiation absorbed by theparticle; and
n
 D
 ρ 
 ,
its density of inertial mass.From electrodynamics we know that
( )( )
5112
2
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ++===
ωε σ μ ε κ ω 
cdt dzv
 
where is the real part of the
 propagation vector 
r
(also called
 phaseconstant 
);
i
ik 
+==
r
;
 
ε 
,
μ 
and
σ 
,
 
arethe electromagnetic characteristics of themedium in which the incident radiation ispropagating (
0
ε ε ε 
=
; ;
m
 / 10854.8
120
×=
ε 
0
μ 
=
, where ).
m /  H 
70
104
×=
π μ 
From (5), we see that the
index of refraction
 
vcn
=
, for
ωε σ 
>>
, is givenby
( )
64
0
ε π σ μ 
 f n
=
 Substitution of Eq. (6) into Eq. (4) yields
 
3
( )
714121
20
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ +==
cf  Dmm
ig
πρ μσ  χ 
 It was shown that there is an additionaleffect -
Gravitational Shielding
effect -produced by a substance whose gravitationalmass was reduced or made negative [
].This effect shows that just
beyond 
thesubstance the gravity acceleration will bereduced at the same proportion
1
g
0
1
ig
mm
=
 χ 
,i.e.,
gg
1
1
χ 
=
, ( is the gravity acceleration
before
the substance). Consequently,
after asecond gravitational shielding
, the gravitywill be given by
g
ggg
2112
2
χ  χ  χ 
==
, where
2
 χ 
is the value of the ratio
0
ig
mm
for the
second 
gravitational shielding. In ageneralized way, we can write that after the
nth
gravitational shielding the gravity,,will be given by
n
g
 
gg
n
n
χ  χ  χ  χ 
...
321
=
 
The dependence of the shieldingeffect on the height, at which the samples areplaced above a superconducting disk withradius, has been recentlymeasured up to a height of about 3m [
m
 D
1375.0
=
].This means that the gravitational shieldingeffect extends, beyond the disk, forapproximately
20 times
the disk
radius
.
3.
Gravitational Shieldings in the Van Allenbelts
The
Van Allen belts
are torus of plasma around Earth, which are held in placeby Earth's magnetic field (See Fig.1). Theexistence of the belts was confirmed by theExplorer 1 and Explorer 3 missions in early1958, under Dr James Van Allen at theUniversity of Iowa. The term
Van Allen belts
 refers specifically to the radiation beltssurrounding Earth; however, similarradiation belts have been discovered aroundother planets.Now consider the ionospheric heatingwith HF beam, modulated at ELF (See Fig.2). The amplitude-modulated HF heating
Fig.1 – Van Allen belts
InnerbeltOuterbelt
Magneticaxis
Earth
Van Allen belts 
0 3600km 6600km
wave is absorbed by the ionospheric plasma,modulating the local conductivity
σ 
. Thecurrent density
0
 E  j
σ 
=
radiates ELFelectromagnetic waves that pass through theVan Allen belts producing two GravitationalShieldings where the densities are
minima
,i.e., where they are approximately equal todensity of the
interplanetary medium
nearEarth. The quasi-vacuum of theinterplanetary space might be thought of asbeginning at an altitude of about 1000kmabove the Earth’s surface [
]. Thus, we canassume that the densities
i
 ρ 
and
o
 ρ 
 respectively, at the first gravitationalshielding S
i
(at the
inner 
Van Allen belt) andat S
o
(at the
outer 
Van Allen belt)
 
are(density of the
interplanetary medium
near the Earth [
320
.108.0
×
mkg
io
ρ  ρ 
]).The parallel conductivities,
 
i
0
σ 
 and
o
0
σ 
, respectively at S
i
and S
o
, presentvalues which lie between those for metallicconductors and those for semiconductors[
], i.e.,
mS
oi
 / 1~
00
σ σ 
. Thus, in thesetwo Gravitational Shielding, according to Eq.(7), we have, respectively:
( )
81101.4121
24
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ×+=
 f  D
ii
 χ 
 
 
Conductivity in presence of the Earth’s magnetic field

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