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Scientific Methods

Scientific Methods

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Published by misterbrowner

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Published by: misterbrowner on Sep 03, 2008
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09/11/2010

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Introduction to ScienceEssential Question:
How does science apply inmy everyday life?
What is Science?
Science – systematic knowledge of thephysical or material world gained throughobservation and experimentationfrom the Latin word
scientia
, which meansknowledge
What is Science? (cont.)
Science studies natural patterns.
1.Science is classified into threemain categories: life science,Earth science, and physicalscience: sometimes a scientificstudy will overlap the categories
2. Science explains the naturalworld; explanations canchange over time.3. Scientists investigate natureby observation,experimentation, or modeling.
Scientific Methods
Scientific method - organized setof investigation procedures
1.State a problem.2.Gather information.3.Form a hypothesis or educatedguess based on knowledge andobservation.
 
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4. An experiment with variables is a commonway to test a hypothesis.a)A dependent variable changes values asother variables changeb)An independent variable is changed todetermine how it will affect the dependentvariable.c)A variable that does not change whenother variables change is a constant.d)A control is the standard to which testresults can be compared.
5. Analyze data from anexperiment or investigation.6. Form a conclusion based onthe data.7. Reduce bias by keepingaccurate records usingmeasurable data, and repeatingthe experiment.
Essential Question:
How does science apply in myeveryday life?Science teaches problem-solvingskills that can be used every day.
A Model Scientific Method
State the problemGather informationForm a hypothesisTest the hypothesisAnalyze the dataDraw conclusionsHypothesis not supportedHypothesis supported
ModifyhypothesisRepeatseveraltimes
Scientific MethodsScientific Methods in Action
 
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Models
Models represent ideas, events,or objects and can be physical or computerized.
Scientific Theories and Laws
A theory is an explanation based onmany observations andinvestigations.A scientific law is a statement aboutsomething that always seems to betrue.
Terminology
HypothesisExperimentDependent VariableIndependent VariableConstantControlTheoryScientific Law
Review: Variables
Independent and dependentvariables are related to one another.The Independent part is what you,the experimenter, changes or enactsin order to do your experiment.The dependent variable is whatchanges when the independentvariable changes - the dependentvariable
depends
on the outcome of the independent variable.
Review: Variables
For example, if you open a faucet(the independent variable), thequantity of water flowing(dependent variable) changes inresponse-- you observe that thewater flow increases.
Review: Variables
Controlled variables are quantities that ascientist wants to remain constant.For example, if we want to measure howmuch water flow increases when we opena faucet, it is important to make sure thatthe water pressure (the controlledvariable) is held constant.

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